X. Elber. Midwestern Baptist College.
As predicted rumalaya liniment 60 ml free shipping, the ﬁrst and third groups of dogs learned within seconds that they could avoid the shock by jumping over the barrier cheap 60 ml rumalaya liniment, while the dogs in the second group would simply lie down and not even make an effort to jump over the barrier, though they could see the other side of the shuttle box. Seligman and his colleagues went on to show that many humans react in a fashion identical to that of animals in these experiments. The adoption of Seligman’s model was revolutionary in psychopharmacology, as it became an effective experiment to test antidepressant drugs. Basically, when animals that had learned to be helpless were given antidepressants, they would unlearn helplessness and start exerting control over their environment. Researchers discovered that when animals learned to be helpless, this resulted in alteration of brain monoamine content. Researchers also discovered that when animals with learned helplessness were taught how to gain control over their environment, their brain chemistry also normalized. The alteration in brain monoamine content in the animals with learned helplessness mirrors the altered monoamine content in human depression. Although most physicians look quickly to drugs to alter brain chemistry, helping patients to gain greater control over their lives actually produces even greater biochemical changes. One of the most powerful techniques to produce the necessary biochemical changes in the brains of depressed individuals is to teach them to be more optimistic. Outside the laboratory setting, Seligman discovered that the determining factor in how a person would react to uncontrollable events, either “bad” or “good,” was his or her explanatory style—the way in which the person explained events. However, individuals who were pessimistic were extremely likely to become depressed when something went wrong in their lives. Seligman and other researchers also found a direct correlation between an individual’s level of optimism and the likeliness of developing not only clinical depression but other illnesses as well. Optimists rarely got depressed, but pessimists were extremely likely to battle depression and other psychological disturbances. Serotonin has been referred to as the brain’s own mood- elevating and tranquilizing drug. Because the manufacture of serotonin in the brain is dependent upon how much tryptophan is delivered to the brain, in experimental studies researchers can feed human volunteers or animals diets lacking tryptophan and note the effects of such a diet. The results from these sorts of studies have contributed greatly in our understanding on just how vital proper levels of serotonin are to a positive human experience. For example, low levels of serotonin are linked to depression, with the lowest levels being observed in people who have committed or attempted suicide. Most of the commonly used antidepressant drugs work primarily by increasing the effects of serotonin. Once serotonin is manufactured in the brain it is stored in nerve cells waiting for release. Upon release, the serotonin carries a chemical message by binding to receptor sites on the neighboring nerve cell. Almost as soon as the serotonin is released enzymes are at work that will either break down the serotonin or work to uptake the serotonin back into the brain cells. It is at this point that various drugs typically work to either inhibit the reuptake of serotonin or prevent its breakdown. Because serotonin reuptake is inhibited, there is more serotonin hanging around, capable of binding to receptor sites. The effectiveness of antidepressant drugs has been the subject of several reviews. The results indicate that they have not been shown to work any better than a placebo in cases of mild to moderate depression, the most common reason for prescription medication, and claims that antidepressants are more effective in more severe conditions have little evidence to support them. As one group of researcher concluded, “Given doubt about their beneﬁts and concern about their risks, current recommendations for prescribing antidepressants should be reconsidered. While antidepressant drugs are only marginally successful at best in alleviating depression, they do produce many side effects. Approximately 20% of patients experience nausea, 20% headaches, 15% anxiety and nervousness, 14% insomnia, 12% drowsiness, 12% diarrhea, 9. There is also a signiﬁcant risk for weight gain and the development of type 2 diabetes (see the box below). Statistics show that once weight gain begins in a patient taking these medications it usually does not stop. These drugs induce weight gain because they alter an area of the brain that regulates both serotonin levels and the utilization of glucose. And, typically if a person has had sugar cravings or other food urges, those cravings will be dramatically enhanced by the drug. Other changes produced by the drug will lead to insulin resistance, setting the stage for inevitable weight gain and perhaps even type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that individuals predisposed to diabetes are two to three times more likely to become diabetic if they use an antidepressant medication. For example, there are a number of lifestyle and dietary factors that lead to reduced serotonin levels. Chief among these factors are cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, a high sugar intake, too much protein, blood sugar disturbances (hypoglycemia and diabetes), and various nutrient deﬁciencies. All of these factors have one thing in common: they lower serotonin levels by impairing the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin.
When glutathione is used up faster than it can be produced by the body or absorbed from the diet purchase rumalaya liniment 60 ml otc, we become much more susceptible to toxin-induced diseases discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml overnight delivery, such as cancer, especially if our Phase I detoxiﬁcation system is highly active. A deﬁciency can be induced either by diseases that increase the need for glutathione, by deﬁciencies of the nutrients needed for synthesis, or by diseases that inhibit its formation. Smoking increases the rate of utilization of glutathione, both in the detoxiﬁcation of nicotine and in the neutralization of free radicals produced by the toxins in the smoke. The same is true of alcohol, with glutathione production directly proportional to the amount of alcohol consumed. Dietary glutathione (found in fresh fruits and vegetables, cooked ﬁsh, and meat) is absorbed well by the intestines and does not appear to be affected by the digestive processes. For example, in healthy individuals, a daily dosage of 500 mg vitamin C may be sufﬁcient to elevate and maintain good tissue glutathione levels. To ensure that glutathione conjugation is working well, eat plenty of glutathione-rich foods (asparagus, avocado, and walnuts), vegetables in the brassica family (such as cabbage and broccoli), and limonene-rich foods, which stimulate glutathione conjugation (orange peel oil, dill and caraway seeds). In addition, we recommend taking extra vitamin C (1,000 to 3,000 mg per day in divided dosages). The body uses several amino acids (glycine, taurine, glutamine, arginine, and ornithine) to combine with and neutralize toxins. People suffering from hepatitis, alcoholic liver disorders, carcinomas, chronic arthritis, hypothyroidism, toxemia of pregnancy, and excessive chemical exposure are commonly found to have a poorly functioning amino acid conjugation system. For example, using the benzoate clearance test (a measure of the rate at which the body detoxiﬁes benzoate by conjugating it with glycine to form hippuric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys), the rate of clearance is half in those with liver disease compared with healthy adults, so in these people all the toxins requiring this pathway stay in the body doing damage almost twice as long. This is due not only to genetic variation but also to the availability of glycine in the liver. Glycine and the other amino acids used for conjugation become deﬁcient on a low-protein diet and when chronic exposure to toxins results in depletion. To ensure that amino acid conjugation is working well, simply make sure that you are eating adequate amounts of protein-rich foods. When additional protein is required, whey protein has the highest biological value. Its effects in preventing estrogen-induced cholestasis (stagnation of bile in the gallbladder) have been demonstrated in pregnant women and those on oral contraceptives. Methionine is a major source of numerous sulfur-containing compounds, including the amino acids cysteine and taurine. To ensure that methylation is working adequately, eat foods rich in folic acid (green leafy vegetables), vitamin B6 (whole grains and legumes), and vitamin B12 (animal products or supplements). Methionine deﬁciency is not likely to be a problem because methionine is widely available in the diet. For example, it is used to detoxify homocysteine, an intermediate metabolite that damages the brain and heart if not eliminated, and it binds to arsenic, helping excrete it in the urine. The sulfation system is important for detoxifying several drugs, food additives, and toxins. Sulfation is also used to detoxify some normal body chemicals and is the main way we eliminate steroid hormones (such as estrogen) and thyroid hormones so that they don’t build up to damaging levels. Since sulfation is the primary route for the elimination of neurotransmitters as well, dysfunction in this system may contribute to the development of some nervous system disorders. For example, the diet needs to contain adequate amounts of methionine and cysteine. Another key nutrient is the trace mineral molybdenum, which is required for most of the enzymes involved in sulfur metabolism. To ensure that sulfation is working adequately, consume adequate amounts of sulfur-containing foods, such as whey protein, eggs, red peppers, garlic, onions, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Conjugation of toxins with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is the method by which the body eliminates sulfa drugs (antibiotics commonly used for urinary tract infections). This system appears to be especially sensitive to genetic variation, with those having a poor acetylation system being far more susceptible to sulfa drugs and other antibiotics. While not much is known about how t o directly improve activity of this system, it is known that acetylation is dependent on thiamine (vitamin B ), pantothenic acid (B ), and vitamin C. It also helps to detoxify aspirin, menthol, vanillin (synthetic vanilla), food additives such as benzoates, and some hormones. Glucuronidation appears to work well in most of us and doesn’t seem to require special attention, except for those with Gilbert’s syndrome—a relatively common syndrome characterized by a chronically elevated serum bilirubin level (1. Previously considered rare, this disorder is now known to affect as much as 5% of the general population. The condition is usually without symptoms, although some patients do complain about loss of appetite, malaise, and fatigue (typical symptoms of impaired liver function).
The control group receiving other topical creams had a healing period of 10 days generic rumalaya liniment 60 ml on line, while the group receiving the cream healed completely within 5 days buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml on-line. Researchers found that if subjects used this cream regularly, they would either stop having recurrences or experience a tremendous reduction in the frequency of recurrences (an average cold-sore-free period of more than 3. Detailed toxicology studies have demonstrated that it is extremely safe and suitable for long-term use. This triterpenoid component of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root inhibits both the growth and the cell-damaging effects of herpes simplex and other viruses. Support of the immune system is of primary importance, necessitating control of food allergens and optimizing nutrients necessary for cell-mediated immunity. Strengthening the immune system can be effective at reducing the frequency, duration, and severity of recurrences. Diet A diet that avoids major food allergens and limits arginine-rich foods while promoting lysine-rich foods is recommended (refer to the table above). The foods with the worst arginine-to-lysine ratio are chocolate, peanuts, and almonds. In fact, it is generally regarded as the most signiﬁcant risk factor for a stroke. Individuals with a normal diastolic pressure (under 85 mm Hg) but signiﬁcantly elevated systolic pressure (over 158 mm Hg) have what is termed isolated systolic hypertension. It is usually an indication of signiﬁcant hardening of the aorta and carries with it a twofold increase in cardiovascular death rates when compared with a systolic pressure under 130 mm Hg). Dietary factors include excessive calorie consumption; high sodium-to-potassium ratio; low-ﬁber, high-sugar diet; high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of omega-3 fatty acids; and a diet low in calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C. Between 40 and 60% of people with high blood pressure are salt-sensitive (as discussed later). Exposure to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic may also be a signiﬁcant factor in some patients. The kidneys take the primary role in the elimination of heavy metals, so these metals concentrate there and disrupt the kidneys’ ability to regulate the body’s ﬂuid volume; this disruption results in sodium and water retention. Although studies of blood lead levels have not consistently shown an association with high blood pressure, it is important to point out that blood lead levels reﬂect primarily acute exposure. The current conventional wisdom among naturopathic physicians is to treat white-coat hypertension as if it were real, as results from recent studies suggest that it is not an innocent phenomenon. Ideally, drug treatment should be used only until the dietary, lifestyle, and supplement strategies take hold. The most important dietary factors include excessive calorie intake; high sodium-to-potassium ratio; low-ﬁber, high-sugar diet; high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of essential fatty acids; a diet low in calcium, magnesium, or vitamin C; and excessive alcohol or caffeine intake. In addition to the following discussions, several of these dietary and lifestyle factors are also discussed in the chapter “Heart and Cardiovascular Health,” because the health of the arteries is critical to maintaining normal blood pressure. Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing exercises, biofeedback, transcendental meditation, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and hypnosis have all been shown to have some value in lowering blood pressure. One of the most powerful ways to manage stress and have more energy is diaphragmatic breathing. Regular, short sessions of slow and regular diaphragmatic breathing have also been shown to lower blood pressure in several studies. Measurement of the amount of sodium and potassium excreted in the urine indicated that shallow breathing led to the retention of sodium in the body. When used for 15 minutes per day, this device can lead to signiﬁcant reduction in blood pressure. Patients with borderline and mild hypertension typically can bring blood pressure readings into the normal range with regular exercise. Weight loss can lead to signiﬁcant improvement in and even complete elimination of the problem; it can also reduce the number of prescription drugs a person needs to take. It contains 3-n-butylphthalide, a compound that has been found to lower blood pressure. In animals, a small amount of this compound lowered blood pressure by 12 to 14% and cholesterol by about 7%. The research was prompted by the father of one of the researchers, who, after eating 1/4 lb of celery per day for one week, observed that his blood pressure had dropped from 158/96 to 118/82. In a meta-analysis of published clinical trials of garlic preparations that included a total of 415 subjects, subjects who were given a dried garlic powder standardized to contain 1. It is also low in cholesterol; high in dietary ﬁber, potassium, calcium, and magnesium; and moderately high in protein. In the second trial, sodium intake was also quantiﬁed at a “higher” intake of 3,300 mg per day, an “intermediate” intake of 2,400 mg per day, and a “lower” intake of 1,500 mg per day. These results are clinically signiﬁcant and indicate that a sodium intake below 1,500 mg per day can significantly and quickly lower blood pressure.
Wa- terfowl have generally been treated on a flock rather than an individual basis; however buy 60 ml rumalaya liniment mastercard, a flock approach to rare birds best 60 ml rumalaya liniment, pets or small collections is usually not accepted by the client. Waterfowl aviaries are fre- quently plagued by problems associated with over- stocking, poor management practices, and pathogen- 46 contaminated ground or water. It is unlawful for anyone to kill, capture, collect, process, buy, sell, trade, ship, import or export any migratory birds, eggs, nests or part thereof without first obtaining an appropriate federal permit. These regulations do not necessarily apply to waterfowl species not indigenous to North America. The state veterinarian’s office in the destination state should be contacted to determine specific requirements. The elongated trachea probably functions as an effective resonator producing low-fre- quency sounds. The sternum has two indentations or fo- Geese are the only waterfowl species to provide food ramina at the rear. There are 10 to 11 primaries, the fifth secondary is ab- sent and there are 12 to 24 tail feath- Family Anhimidae (screamers) Family Anatidae (ducks, geese,swans) ers. The 2 genera young are nidifugous, have a dense, Subfamily Subfamily Subfamily downy plumage and are tended for a 3 species Anseranatinae Anserinae Anatinae (Magpie Goose) 4 tribes 8 tribes long time by one or both parents (ex- 34 genera 8 genera cept in parasitic species that lay eggs 32 species 115 species in the nests of other birds). Flight feathers are molted gradually so that, like the Magpie Goose, but unlike most waterfowl, they do not pass through an annual flightless period. The feet are slightly webbed with an unusually long hind toe adapted for semiterrestrial life. The trachea is elongated in adults of both sexes, and in adult males may reach 150 cm long. A syringeal bulla may be present on the left side of the syrinx in male ducks (see Figure 12. In this inside the sternum as it is in some goose, the trachea can be seen to be more elongated (arrows) than in companion birds, and the sternum is broad and less convex than in many avian species. The adults deposit proper foodstuffs A few species are widely distributed, such as the in front of their downy chicks. The Madagascar White- The subfamily Anserinae includes Whistling Ducks, eye, on the other hand, occurs on only a few island swans, true geese, Cape Barren Geese and Freckled lakes. These species undergo a complete annual tions: Pekin, Muscovy, American Black and Mexi- molt following the breeding season. Swans and geese are usually sexually mono- ers are shed almost simultaneously so the birds are morphic (exceptions: Magellan and Kelp geese). The front toes are fully webbed except in two semit- Most waterfowl are excellent swimmers, with errestrial species of geese. The short femurs, is monomorphic and all species lack iridescent col- long tibiotarsal bones and extremely short tar- oration, even on the wings. The normal speed of swimming for subfamily molt the body feathers twice each year. The Oldsquaw and King Eider are reported species the breeding plumage of the male closely to dive at least 180 feet. There is fre- Waterfowl are thickly feathered and have compact quently a gender difference in calls as a result of a waterproof plumage and a dense coat of insulating difference in the structure of the syrinx and some- down. They have a highly tarsus has a linearly arranged (scutellated) scale developed uropygial (oil) gland. Iridescent and oiling is imperative to keep feathers in prime coloration is frequently present in the plumage, par- condition so that chilling and sinking do not occur. The male of sexually dimor- Waterfowl are generally powerful fliers that cruise phic species is typically larger, more brilliantly pat- with their necks and legs extended. The plumage of swans is approximately 160 per minute, while some juveniles and the non-breeding males generally re- ducks may exceed 300 wing beats per minute. The patterns of the Canvasback Duck, one of the fastest waterfowl, has downy young are often quite contrasting and distinc- been clocked at 70 mph in flight, but normally cruises tive, and usually include spotting and striping on the at 25 to 35 mph. Males of this subfamily do not assist cruise at 1000- to 3000-foot elevations, but may go as in incubation but, depending on the tribe, participate high as 20,000 feet or more. In Diversity of Anseriformes most ducks, only the male has a left-sided enlarge- Waterfowl species range in size from the diminutive ment of the syrinx (syringeal bulla) (see Figure Pygmy Goose (300 g) to the Trumpeter Swan (13. This structure may be responsible for court- kg), which has a wing spread approaching 2. Normal body weight can vary tremen- communication for defense, warning, recognition and flocking signals. In swans the trachea is elon- Although Anseriformes generally surface feed, they gated and in the Trumpeter Swan it extends into the may also graze or feed by diving. Some species are sternum, turns on itself and reenters the syrinx (see omnivorous while others are strictly herbivorous. Other species seldom come ashore, pre- terfowl are remarkably tolerant of adverse climatic ferring to sleep on the water. They can be maintained successfully in Young Anseriformes easily imprint on humans or most regions of the world.