By Z. Aidan. Virginia Wesleyan College. 2019.
A separate chapter on methodology has not been included as there are many comprehensive texts which cover methods in detail cheap noroxin 400mg amex. The aim of this book is to illustrate this range of methods and approaches to data analysis through the choice of examples described throughout each chapter buy cheap noroxin 400mg line. The contents of the ﬁrst half of this book reﬂect this emphasis and illustrate how diﬀerent sets of beliefs relate to behaviours and how both these factors are associated with illness. Chapter 2 examines changes in the causes of death over the twentieth century and why this shift suggests an increasing role for beliefs and behaviours. The chapter then assesses theories of health beliefs and the models that have been developed to describe beliefs and predict behaviour. Chapter 3 examines beliefs individuals have about illness and Chapter 4 examines health professionals’ health beliefs in the context of doctor–patient communication. Chapters 5–9 examine health-related behaviours and illustrate many of the theories and constructs which have been applied to speciﬁc behaviours. Chapter 5 describes theories of addictive behaviours and the factors that predict smoking and alcohol consumption. Chapter 6 examines theories of eating behaviour drawing upon develop- mental models, cognitive theories and the role of weight concern. Chapter 7 describes the literature on exercise behaviour both in terms of its initiation and methods to encourage individuals to continue exercising. Health psychology also focuses on the direct pathway between psychology and health and this is the focus for the second half of the book. Chapter 10 examines research on stress in terms of its deﬁnition and measurement and Chapter 11 assesses the links between stress and illness via changes in both physiology and behaviour and the role of moderating variables. Chapter 12 focuses on pain and evaluates the psychological factors in exacerbating pain perception and explores how psychological interventions can be used to reduce pain and encourage pain acceptance. Chapter 13 speciﬁcally examines the interrelationships between beliefs, behaviour and health using the example of placebo eﬀects. Chapter 16 explores the problems with measuring health status and the issues surrounding the measurement of quality of life. Finally, Chapter 17 examines some of the assumptions within health psychology that are described throughout the book. Each chapter could be used as the basis for a lecture and/or reading for a lecture and consists of the following features: s A chapter overview, which outlines the content and aims of the chapter. Each ‘focus on research’ section takes one speciﬁc paper that has been chosen as a good illustration of either theory testing or practical implications. In addition, there is a glossary at the end of the book, which describes terms within health psychology relating to methodology. Discuss the extent to which factors other than biological ones may have contributed to your illness. This paper discusses the problematic relationship between inequality and health status and illustrates an integration of psychological factors with the wider social world. This chapter describes the different skills of a health psychologist, where they might be employed and the types of work they might be involved in. This paper provides an interesting discussion about the aims of health psychology and suggests that rather than focusing on biological outcomes, such as longevity and cell pathology, researchers should aim to change behaviour and should therefore evaluate the success of any interventions on the basis of whether this aim has been achieved. This paper discusses the interrelationship between research, theory and practice in health psychology and focuses on the speciﬁc skills involved in being a research health psychologist. This chapter ﬁrst examines lay theories of health and then explores theories of health behaviours and the extent to which health behaviours can be predicted by health beliefs such as the attributions about causes of health and behaviour, perceptions of risk and the stages of change model. In particular, the chapter describes the integration of these different types of health beliefs in the form of models (health belief model, protection motivation theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, health action process approach). It explores problems with these models and describes studies that address the gap between behavioural intentions and actual behaviour. Finally, the chapter explores how these theories can be used for developing interventions designed to change behaviour. They suggested that: s a health behaviour was a behaviour aimed to prevent disease (e. Health behaviours were further deﬁned by Matarazzo (1984) in terms of either: s health impairing habits, which he called ‘behavioural pathogens’ (e. In short, Matarazzo distinguished between those behaviours that have a negative eﬀect (the behavioural pathogens, such as smoking, eating foods high in fat, drinking large amounts of alcohol) and those behaviours that may have a positive eﬀect (the behavioural immunogens, such as tooth brushing, wearing seat belts, seeking health information, having regular check-ups, sleeping an adequate number of hours per night). Generally health behaviours are regarded as behaviours that are related to the health status of the individual. Over the past century health behaviours have played an increasingly important role in health and illness. McKeown’s thesis The decline of infectious diseases In his book The Role of Medicine, Thomas McKeown (1979) examined the impact of medicine on health since the seventeenth century. In particular, he evaluated the widely held assumptions about medicine’s achievements and the role of medicine in reducing the prevalence and incidence of infectious illnesses, such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, measles, inﬂuenza, diphtheria, smallpox and whooping cough. He showed, however, that the reduction in such illnesses was already underway before the development of the relevant medical interventions.
Micronutrients | 21 • Other interactions: Magnesium reduces absorption of digoxin purchase 400mg noroxin amex, nitrofurantoin discount noroxin 400mg, anti- malarial drugs, quinolone antibiotics, tetracycline, chlorpromazine, alendronate, and etidronate, so separate intake of magnesium from these foods by two hours. Most studies involving chromium were done with the picolinate form, which is readily absorbed and utilized by the body. Certain individuals (diabetics and those at risk for diabetes) may require an additional supplement. Others at risk: Premature and low birth- weight infants with diarrhea; infants fed only cow’s milk formula, which is low in copper; those with malnutrition, malabsorption syndromes (celiac disease), cystic ﬁbrosis, and those receiving intravenous feeding. Iodine • Required to make thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, energy produc- tion, and body temperature, and are essential for growth and reproduction. Micronutrients | 23 • Other interactions: Amiodarone (heart drug) contains high levels of iodine and may affect thyroid function; potassium iodide may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. These foods are a concern only for those who are iodine deﬁcient and consume high amounts of them. Symptoms include fatigue, paleness, headache, hair loss, brittle nails, rapid heart rate, increased risk of infections, and rapid breathing on exertion. To avoid this, separate intake of iron supplements from these products by two hours. Manganese • Required for the production and activation of enzymes that are involved in energy me- tabolism; bone, cartilage, and collagen formation; and the production of antioxidants. Molybdenum • Required for the production of enzymes that are cofactors in amino acid metabo- lism, formation of uric acid, and the metabolism of drugs and toxins. Selenium • Component of enzymes that function as antioxidants; involved in detoxiﬁcation; converts thyroid hormone to its active form; supports immune function; enhances the antioxidant activity of vitamin E. Zinc • Involved in numerous enzyme reactions; required for growth and development, im- mune and neurological function, reproduction and regulation of gene expression; stabilizes the structure of proteins and cell membranes. Micronutrients | 25 • Marginal deﬁciencies are common in malnourished people, vegetarians, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, colitis, and sickle cell anemia. Depending on dietary intake and personal risk factors, additional potassium supple- ments may be necessary for some people. The table below contains nutrient recommendation for individuals 19 years and old- er, and women 19 years and older who are pregnant or lactating. To access guidelines for infants, children, and teenagers, refer to the Institute of Medicine’s Web site at www. Lactation = 12 Lactation = 40 High dosages of supplements may reduce copper levels. Today we know that what we eat is a major determinant of health, and that food provides both nutritive and healing properties. Functional foods, as deﬁned by the International Food Information Council, are “foods or dietary components that may provide a health beneﬁt beyond basic nutri- tion. Apple skins are a major food source of a type of ﬂavonoid called quercetin, which is a potent antioxidant that helps protect against heart disease and cancer. Anthocyanidins have antioxidant properties, preventing free radical damage and reducing the risk of chronic disease. These compounds are found in other cruciferous vegetables, such as kale, cauliﬂower, and cabbage. Carotenoids help protect against cardiovascular disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and cataracts, and they also promote good night vision. New research is looking at the effects of another phytonutrient in carrots, called falcarinol, and its ability to reduce the risk of colon cancer. To get the maximum amount of nutrients from carrots, eat them raw or lightly steamed. Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes offer a wide range of nutrients (vitamin C, folate, and ﬁbre). Supplements of lutein have been shown to improve vision in those with macular degeneration and prevent disease progression. One to two serv- ings of kale or collard greens per week provide the recommended amount of lutein and zeaxanthin. Other food sources include spinach, broccoli, and leeks, but they contain a lesser amount. Preliminary research also shows that these compounds may help lower cholesterol, improve gum health, prevent ulcers, and prevent brain damage after a stroke. Health authorities recommend consuming Functional Foods | 35 no more than six meals per year of farmed salmon. To obtain all the beneﬁts, eat the milled ﬂaxseed or get whole seeds and crush them in a food processor or coffee grinder. Store milled seeds in the refrigerator or freezer in an opaque, airtight container; they will be stable for 90 days. Studies have found beneﬁts with as little as 900 mg of garlic per day, which is approximately equivalent to one clove. Clinical studies have validated its beneﬁts for preventing the symptoms of motion sickness (especially seasickness) and in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnan- cy. The active compounds in ginger, called gingerols, have potent anti-inﬂammatory effects, making it helpful in the treatment of arthritis and other inﬂammatory condi- tions.
Some examples of isoquinoline derivatives with medicinal values are summarized in the following table order noroxin 400 mg amex. In addition to their medicinal uses order noroxin 400 mg fast delivery, isoquinolines are used in the manufac- ture of dyes, paints and insecticides, and as a solvent for the extraction of resins. This alkaloid is used mainly in the treatment of spasms and of erectile dysfunction. The usual side-effects of papaverine treatment include polymorphic ven- tricular tachycardia, constipation, increased transaminase levels, hyperbilir- unemia and vertigo. Side-effects of morphine treatment gen- erally include impairment of mental performance, euphoria, drowsiness, loss of appetite, constipation, lethargy and blurred vision. Phenylethylamines Phenylethylamine, a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, is a monoamine. Although the nitrogen is not a part of the ring, phenylethylamine and its derivatives are classiﬁed as alkaloids. Phenylethylamine itself is a colourless liquid, and it is biosynthesized from phenylalanine through enzymatic decarboxylation. This is one of the major groups of naturally occurring bioactive alkaloids, and can be classiﬁed into three main categories: tryptamine and its derivatives, ergoline and its derivatives, and b-carboline and its derivatives. Substitutions to the tryptamine skeleton give rise to a group of compounds collectively known as tryptamines: e. Some of the pharmacologically active natural tryptamines are psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyl- tryptamine) from ‘magic mushrooms’ (Psilocybe cubensis and P. It is an ergoline alkaloid that occurs in various species of the Convolvulaceae, and in some species of fungus. Rivea corymbosa (ololiuqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian baby woodrose) and Ipomoea violacea (tlitliltzin) are three major sources of this alkaloid. The structure of b-carboline is similar to that of tryptamine, with the ethylamine chain re-connected to the indole ring via an extra carbon atom, to produce a three-membered ring structure. The biosynthesis of b-carboline alkaloids follows a similar pathway to tryptamine. Some b-carbolines, notably tryptoline and pinoline, are formed naturally in the human body. We have already learnt that two of the bases in nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are purines. Caffeine is sometimes called guaranine when found in guarana (Paullinia cupana), mateine when found in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and theine when found in tea. Caffeine is found in a number of other plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide. Apart from its presence in the tea and coffee that we drink regularly, caffeine is also an ingredient of a number of soft drinks. Caffeine is also used with ergotamine in the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches as well as to overcome the drowsiness caused by antihistamines. Aconitine is an extremely toxic substance obtained from the plants of the genus Aconitum (family Ranunculaceae), commonly known as ‘aconite’ or ‘monkshood’. Solanine is a poisonous steroidal alkaloid, also known as glycoalkaloid, found in the nightshades family (Solanaceae). Solanine has both fungicidal and pesticidal properties, and it is one of the plant’s natural defences. It has sedative and anticonvulsant properties, and has sometimes been used for the treatment of asthma, as well as for cough and common cold. However, gastrointestinal and neurological disorders result from solanine poisoning. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps, burning of the throat, headaches and dizziness. Other adverse reactions, in more severe cases, include hallucinations, loss of sensation, paralysis, fever, jaundice, dilated pupils and hypothermia. The toxicities of samandarin include muscle convulsions, raised blood pressure and hyperventilation. Betaine itself is used to treat high homocysteine levels, and sometimes as a mood enhancer. It causes profound activation of the peripheral parasympathetic nervous system, which may result in convulsions and death. Muscarine mimics the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Macrocyclic alkaloids This group of alkaloids possess a macrocycle, and in most cases nitrogen is a part of the ring system. Acanthaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Ephedraceae and possess various biological properties, for example budmunchiamines L4 and L5, two antimalarial spermine alkaloids isolated from Albizia adinoce- phala (Leguminosae). In this test the alkaloids are mixed with a tiny amount of potassium chlorate and a drop of hydrochloric acid and evaporated to dryness, and the resulting residue is exposed to ammonia vapour. Eating a high carbohydrate diet will ensure maintenance of muscle and liver glyco- gen (storage forms of carbohydrate), improve performance and delay fatigue. Thus, carbohy- drates are a group of polyhydroxy aldehydes, ketones or acids or their derivatives, together with linear and cyclic polyols.
Benzquinamide appears to have antiemetic buy 400mg noroxin with visa, antihistaminic purchase noroxin 400 mg on line, and anti- cholinergic effects. Side effects and adverse reactions of the miscellaneous antiemetics include drowsiness and anticholinergic symptoms such as dry mouth, increased heart rate, urine retention, constipation, and blurred vision. Benzquinamide should be used cautiously in clients with cardiac problems such as dysrhythmias. However, vomiting should not be induced if the toxin is a caustic substance such as ammonia, chlorine bleach, lye, toilet cleaners, or battery acid. In cases where vomiting is contraindicated, the patient should be adminis- tered activated charcoal, which is available in tablets, capsules, or suspension. Charcoal absorbs (detoxifies) ingested toxic substances, irritants, and intestinal gas. In cases where vomiting is desired, use one of two ways to expel a toxin: The nonpharmacological treatment is to induce vomiting by stimulating the gag reflex by placing a finger or a toothbrush in the back of the patient’s throat. Ipecac, available over the counter, should be purchased as a syrup—not a fluid extract. Ipecac should be taken with at least eight or more ounces of water or juice (do not use milk or carbonated beverages). Diarrhea can be mild (lasting one bowel movement) or severe (lasting several bowel movements). Intestinal fluids are rich in water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate, and diarrhea can cause minor or severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. Severe diarrhea can be life threatening in young, elderly, and debilitated patients. Diarrhea can be treated with a combination of medications and nonpharmacological measures such as clear liquids and oral solutions—Gatorade, Pedialyte, or Ricolyte—and intravenous electrolyte solutions. For example, traveler’s diarrhea also known as Montezuma’s Revenge is an acute condition usually caused by E. A patient experiencing traveler’s diarrhea may be given fluoro- quinolone antibiotics and loperamide (Immodium) to slow peristalsis and decrease the frequency of the stools. Fluoroquinolone treats the underlying cause of diar- rhea and loperamide treats the diarrhea itself. Anti-diarrhea medications decrease the hypermotility (increased peristalsis) that stimulates frequent bowel movements. Antidiarrheals should not be used for longer than 2 days and should not be used if a fever is present. Examples are tincture of opium, paregoric (camphorated opium tincture), and codeine. Opiate-Related Agents Opiate-related agents are drugs that are synthetic compounds similar to opiates. These drugs include diphenoxylate (Lomotil) (50% atropine to discourage abuse; amount of atropine is subtherapeutic) and loperamide. It protects against diarrhea longer than a similar dose of Lomotil, reduces fecal volume, and decreases intestinal fluid and electrolyte losses. Tachycardia, para- lytic ileus, urinary retention, decreased secretions, and physical dependence can occur with prolonged use. Adsorbents include kaolin and pectin, which are combined in the over-the-counter drug Kaopectate, and other antidiarrheals. Colestipol and cholestyramine (Questran) are prescription drugs that have been used to treat diarrhea. Anti-Diarrhea Combinations Anti-diarrhea combinations are miscellaneous antidiarrheals that include colistin sulfate, furazolidone, loperamide, lactobacillus, and octreotide acetate. It is a common occurrence for the elderly due to insufficient water intake and poor dietary habits. Other factors that cause constipation are fecal impaction, bowel obstruction, chronic laxative use, neurologic disorders such as paraplegia, a lack of exercise, and ignoring the urge to have a bowel movement. Drugs such as anticholinergics, narcotics, and certain antacids can also cause constipation. The pharmacological approach is to administer laxatives and cathartics to eliminate fecal matter. Laxatives promote a soft stool and cathartics promote a soft-to-watery stool with some cramping. Harsh cathartics that cause a watery stool with abdominal cramping are called purgatives. Frequency of the dose determines whether the drug acts as a laxative or a cathartic. Laxatives should be avoided if there is any question that the patient has an intestinal obstruction, severe abdominal pain, or symptoms of appendicitis, ulcerative colitis, or diverticulitis.