By C. Nasib. Marywood University.

Bartholomews Hospital singulair 10mg on-line, London Genius seems to consist in the power of applying Surgery has undergone many great the originality of youth to the experience of transformations during the past fifty years trusted 5mg singulair, and maturity. Polish proverbs Chirurgical Observations () A beggar does not hate another beggar as much as one doctor hates another. When the mischief seems to be of such nature as that gangrene and mortification are most likely to Every Czech is a musician; every Italian a doctor; ensue, no time can be spared... Johnson, London () The doctor demands his fees whether he has killed the illness or the patient. As fine and as fast as he can; Austrian-born British philosopher Though I am no judge of such matters, I’m sure he’s a talented man. It is not his possession of knowledge of irrefutable Poems of Life and Manners ‘The Talented Man’ truth that makes the man of science, but his persistent and recklessly critical quest for truth. Of which you need not read one letter; The worse the scrawl, the dose the better, Drunkenness turns a man out of himself, and For if you knew but what you take, leaves a beast in his room. By professional patriotism amongst medical men I mean that sort of regard for the honour of the He that is uneasy at every little pain is never profession and that sense of responsibility for its without some ache. Introduction to Abraham Flexner’s Medical Education in the Meddlesome midwifery is bad. Happiness is beneficial for the body, but it is grief that develops the powers of the mind. Scratching is bad because it begins with pleasure They err habitually on the side of optimism as to and ends with pain. If it is capable of deceiving the doctor, The best smell is bread, the savour salt, the best how should it fail to deceive the patient? Le Côté de Guermantes Pt  The best surgeon is he that has been well hacked Everything great in the world comes from himself. The choleric drinks, the melancholic eats, the Le Côté de Guermantes Pt  phlegmatic sleeps. Illness is the doctor to whom we pay most heed; to The eye is bigger than the belly. We are usually the best men when in the worst All would live long but none would be old. A man has often more trouble to digest food than We are born crying, live complaining, and die to get it. Putnam – As long as our brain is a mystery, the universe, the reflection of the structure of the brain, will also be No argument is needed to show what a mystery. Charlas de Cafe Boston Medical and Surgical Journal :  () It is best to attenuate the virulence of our ‘The man’ is above all else, the mind of the man, adversaries with the chloroform of courtesy and and not only the mind as an organ of conscious flattery, much as bacteriologists disarm a thought but the mind as an organ of bodily pathogen by converting it into a vaccine. Like an earthquake, true senility announces itself Boston Medical and Surgical Journal :  () by trembling and stammering. Charlas de Cafe Françis Quarles – That which enters the mind through reason can English poet be corrected. Statistical evidence shows that the greater the François Rabelais – intellectual freedom, and the higher the general average of intelligence in a community, the French physician and satirist greater is also the number of suicides. Jacques Le Clercq) Louis-Antoine Ranvier – Without health life is not life; it is unlivable. French professor of histology Without health, life spells but languor and an It is necessary in a word to make histology image of death. Ravdin – bowels are working and what sort of food he Professor of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania eats... I may venture to add one more question: In the surgery of the future the individualist will what occupation does he follow? Wright) of that broader field of experimental pathology to which all the medical sciences belong. Dr Virginia Ramirez de Barquero Annals of Surgery :  () Costa Rica health official We trust the drug companies. University of California Press, Berkeley () Diseases are the tax on pleasures. English Proverbs Santiago Ramón y Cajal – Spanish physician, professor of histology, and Nobel Prize Theodor Reik – winner German psychoanalyst It is idle to dispute with old men. Charlas de Cafe Attributed   ·     Paul Reznikoff –? Their aims are entirely different—science If you want to get out of medicine the fullest tries to find out how, religion deals with why. Attributed Attributed Sydney Ringer – Rhazes (abu-Bakr Muhammed British physician and physiologist ibn-Zakariya al Razi) – A man is a fool who holds two hospital Persian physician (Baghdad school) appointments. When the disease is stronger than the patient, the Quoted in Dictionary of Medical Eponyms (nd edn), p. Attributed French humanist and satirist Everyone complains of his memory, none of his judgment. To preserve one’s health by too strict a regime is in Foreword in Atlas of Nutritional Support Techniques.

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Aesculapius The ancient Roman god of medi- cine purchase singulair 5 mg otc, whose staff with a snake curled around it is adult-onset Still’s disease Still’s disease that commonly used as a symbol of medicine best singulair 4 mg. See bipolar disorder; surrogate decision maker should the patient cyclothymia; depression; seasonal affective dis- become unable to make medical decisions. A vein is an afferent ageusia An inability to taste sweet, sour, bitter, or vessel because it carries blood from the body salty substances. The opposite of afferent is effer- bitter, or salty substances but have a reduced ability ent. Antagonists and agonists afterbirth The placenta and the fetal membranes are key players in the chemistry of the human body that are normally expelled from the uterus after the and in pharmacology. Persons with agammaglobulinemia Total or near-total agoraphobia frequently also have panic disorder. In the Agammaglobulinemia can be due to certain genetic most severe agoraphobia, the victims may be inca- diseases or caused by acquired diseases, including pacitated and homebound. It can be an agenesis of the gallbladder A condition in inherited genetic condition or acquired as, for which the gallbladder fails to develop. See also agranulocytosis, in about every 1,000 people, usually without addi- infantile genetic; granulocytopenia; severe con- tional birth defects. Also known as Kostmann taining 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, as well as trace disease or syndrome and genetic infantile agranulocy- amounts of dioxin. Aicardis syndrome A rare genetic disorder that occurs only in females and is caused by congenital http://www. Loss of consciousness nerves that connects the left and right sides of the occurs if the obstruction is not relieved. Features include epilepsy that emerges in of airway obstruction due to a foreign body includes infancy and is difficult to control, vision problems due the Heimlich maneuver for adults, a series of five to maldeveloped retinas, developmental delay, and abdominal thrusts for children over 1 year of age, sometimes physical deformities of the spine, face, and a combination of five back blows with the flat of and/or heart. Features include deficiency of certain types of leukocytes, akathisia A movement disorder characterized by especially T cells; infection with opportunistic infec- a feeling of inner restlessness and a compelling tions that take advantage of the impaired immune need to be in constant motion, as well as by actions response, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumo- such as rocking while standing or sitting, lifting the nia, human herpes virus, or toxoplasmosis; certain feet as if marching on the spot, and crossing and types of cancer, particularly Kaposi sarcoma; inabil- uncrossing the legs while sitting. Entering air somal recessive gene and can occur in people of then passes through the back of the throat (phar- any ethnic background. People with albinism have ynx) and continues through the voice box (larynx), delicate skin that sunburns and develops skin can- down the trachea, to finally pass through the cer easily, and they may suffer from eye disorders. Causes applied by the Portuguese to people in West Africa, include the presence of foreign matter, allergic who may have had partial or complete albinism. Associated respiratory distress may be sud- albuginea of the testis, for example, is the layer of den, with only a cough for a warning. There is often dense whitish inelastic tissue that surrounds the agitation in the early stages. Chemically, albumin is soluble in water, precipitated by acid, and coagulated by heat. Aldosterone albuminuria More than the normal amount of regulates the balance of water and electrolytes in the albumin in the urine. Albuminuria can be a sign that body, encouraging the kidney to excrete potassium protein is leaking through the kidney, most often into the urine and retain sodium, thereby retaining through the glomeruli, or a sign of significant kid- water. The type of alcohol used in alco- the written word, due either to brain damage that holic beverages, ethanol, derives from fermenting disconnects these functions or to temporary dys- sugar with yeast. After alcohol is ingested, the body function caused by abnormal electrical or chemical converts it to sugar-based fuel. From the Latin alimentum, als—children or pregnant women, for meaning nourishment. Alkaline phosphatase alcohol poisoning A condition in which a toxic can be measured in a routine blood test. The affected individual may phatase may indicate bone disease, liver disease, or become extremely disoriented, unresponsive, or bile duct obstruction. Because alco- hol poisoning can be deadly, emergency treatment is alkalosis Relatively too much base in the blood necessary. The alcohol use in pregnancy The consumption of pH of an alkalotic body measures above normal. Deficiency of this enzyme leads zation founded to assist people addicted to alcohol to the three cardinal features of alkaptonuria (the in breaking old behavior patterns and gaining sup- presence of homogentisic acid in the urine), port for consistently living a sober lifestyle. Urine that turns dark is a alcoholism Physical dependence on alcohol to characteristic feature. Common allergens include ragweed ical dependence and then making lifestyle changes pollen, animal dander, and mold. In some allergic conjunctivitis Inflammation of the cases, medication and hospitalization are necessary. An allergic reaction can If the skin reddens and, more importantly, if it occur when the immune system attacks a normally swells, the test is read as positive, and allergy to that harmless substance. In the melee, cells called mast cells release tiny protein particles shed or excreted by cock- a variety of strong chemicals, including histamine, roaches.

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The majority of the the pattern of change in severity of involuntary movements as the lesions were at the thoracic level (58 singulair 4 mg free shipping. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed in 50 disorders presenting with a change in the nature of chorea in patients patients (49%) purchase 5 mg singulair otc. Some purposeful movement was regained but there 513 was also increasingly forid chorea and dystonia in her face, neck and shoulders. The initial presentation is subtle as interpretation of neurology is diffcult and may only Introduction/Background: Delirium has been shown to be a com- manifest as a change in the severity of involuntary movements. He then developed hyperactive delirium secondary to a urinary 1Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilitation Unit- Depart- tract infection further compounded by pain, constipation and no- ment of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Cheras, Malaysia, 2Uni- socomial pneumonia. Managing neurogenic bladder Lumpur, Malaysia, 3Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilita- and bowel aggravates agitation due to the invasive nature of in- tion Unit- Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kuala terventions. Resultant constipation and incontinence worsens de- Lumpur, Malaysia lirium creating a vicious cycle. Loss of sensation increases risk of self harm during periods of psychomotor agitation e. There is The study is approved by the ethic committee of Hospital Univer- muscle atrophy under bilateral deltoid muscle. Results: We targeted a sample size of tion around the anus but partial sensation of pressure in lower limbs 30. Data available from all subjects recruited by May 2016 pairment scale is B (complete motor C4 lesion). In addition, the results of this study will provide important cians supported the subject in balance and weight-bearing (Fig). Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia 518 Introduction/Background: Spinal Cord Injury is a devastating event with lasting implications to one’s life. Hasnan 1University of Malaya, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine- Material and Methods: 22 year old man who had motor vehicle accident in Apr 2012 and sustained comminuted fracture T3 to T5 Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and subluxation T3/T4. Material and Methods: We report a 64 years rehabilitation team at 3 years post injury and he remains as com- old gentleman who sustained hyperextension injury of neck. Prior to admission, prognosis cated with spinal cord edema at C3/C4 level resulted by spinal canal and expected functional outcome explained. Neurogenic shock on day one of injury was stabi- discussed and set before the admission. On third day post injury, he underwent was monitored using Spinal Cord Independence Measure. He choked on his Our patient showed marked improvement during his 3 weeks of meal after the surgery. Spinal Cord Independence Measure right palate elevation, tongue deviation to right on protrusion and scored 26/100 on admission and 65/100 upon discharge. Complication of aspiration sion: Rehabilitation is an essential treatment for any spinal cord pneumonia had hindered the rehabilitation progress for the follow- injured patient to achieve functional independence and improve ing week. Results: Recovery 517 of dysphagia was slow despite aggressive swallowing therapies, practicing of swallowing maneuvers and compensatory strategies. He gained some 1 2 3 4 3 motor recovery but still required maximal assistance in daily activi- A. The exact mechanism has 1University of Tsukuba, Department of Orthopedic Surgery- Faculty not been clearly defned. Researcher observed a trend toward re- of Medicine, Tsukuba City, Japan, 2University of Tsukuba, Division covery over 2 to 6 months after surgery. However, it takes longer in J Rehabil Med Suppl 55 Poster Abstracts 153 this case scenario. Bedside swallowing and neurological assessment 1Wakayama Medical University, Rehabilitation Medicine, Wakay- should be performed for all patients with acute cervical spinal cord ama, Japan injury and those who undergone anterior cervical spinal surgery. Moreover, we evaluated effects of even admitted because of osteoporotic fractures with spinal cord in- local heating and cooling in both sensory-intact and disturbance volvement. Results: In our studies, sympathetic speaking bone research societies should be used in this very special control of thermoregulatory responses were strikingly attenuated patient group. During mild cold stress, even a decrease in body core tempera- glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis there are separate guidelines. Conclusion: In medication and if necessary further work up of secondary causes are summary, thermoregulatory responses via central nervous system initiated. Results: In terial and Methods: Twelve paraplegic persons were participated 1976 only 14% of the patients had nontraumatic spinal cord injury, in the study. The range in age, time after injury, neurologic level, in the frst six months of 2015 its part had been 58%. The protocol was approved by the ethics committees at the two participating institutions, and all 521 participants provided written informed consent. Pa- gor, Malaysia, 3University Malaya, Department of Rehabilitation tients may experience severe neuropathic pain, weakness, abnor- Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia mal sensation, particularly in the hands.

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About one third of the all studies were randomized limb were signifcantly greater (2 generic singulair 10mg. The component analysis 817 of the toe clearance may help targeted rehabilitation to improve toe clearance and potentially reduce the risk of falls buy singulair 5 mg otc. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency was able to decrease sick days in the period between 2000 and 2010 but K. O’Riordan2 sick days are rising again in Sweden, mostly due to psychologi- 1Singapore General Hospital, Rehabilitation Medicine, Singapore, cal problems among women and partly due to their work environ- Singapore, 2Changi General Hospital, Rehabilitation Medicine, ment. Thompson1 research involving the perceptions of patients and their family to- 1Broadgreen Hospital, Phoenix CentRe for Rehabilitation, Liver- wards inpatient rehabilitation and our clinical experience seemed pool, United Kingdom, 2Cheshire and Merseyside Rehabilitation to suggest that a substantial number may view rehabilitation as a Network, Rehabilitation Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom passive extension of hospitalisation merely to prolong rest or to allow the organisation of discharge plans. The aim of this study Introduction/Background: Article 5 of Human Rights Act states that is to garner objective data to confrm the extent of these passive ‘everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. Supreme Court judgment in Mar 2014 made these perceptions by focusing on specifc aspects of patient edu- reference to ‘acid test’ to see whether a person is being deprived of cation, with an ultimate goal of improving the active involvement liberty, which consisted of two questions: Is the person subject to of the patients and their families as part of the rehabilitation team continuous supervision and control? Material and patient and one nominated family member, both at the time of Methods: — Retrospective study, Jun 2014 to Oct 2015 carried at admission and at discharge. The purpose of kistan, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Hos- this study was to clarify the effects of the use of handrails on pital, Rehabilitation Hospital- King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, time-distance factors during the treadmill-walking of hemiple- 3 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, College of Physicians and Surgeons of gics. The time after onset was 1074±1104 Introduction/Background: Pakistan is a low resourced country with days. A KinemaTracer® three-dimensional motion analysis sys- an evolving health care system. For statistical analysis, a on Medline, Google scholar, Science direct and Springer link with Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank Test was used to compare key words rehabilitation; history; Pakistan; disability ; rehabilita- the two conditions of walking. Results: The stride length and step tion medicine; physiatrist; physiatry ;developing countries and chal- length of both sides were signifcantly longer and the step widths lenges (2000–2015; English language only). Single sup- in Pakistan were approached for sharing their experiences and iden- port time and the ratio of the single support phase in the gait cycle tifying the challenges they faced while establishing this specialty. There were no signifcant differences between the two They collaborated on clinical and academic platforms to promote gait conditions in the other time factors. In Dec 2015, the numbers of qualifed Physiatrists of the present study show that the use of handrails in the treadmill- increased to 51, most of which have completed their training in walking of hemiplegics increases stride length and step length, the Pakistan. The 2005 earthquake allowed the physiatrists to display J Rehabil Med Suppl 55 Poster Abstracts 239 their pivotal role in the management of major disabilities. This study is aimed to measure patient outcomes, the quality of care The baton has been passed to the next generation of Physiatrists. There has been improved academics, better rehabilitation services Material and Methods: This single blinded randomized control trial and advancement in research. In this study, we of the Iranian physiatrists have good attitude toward their current aimed to investigated the potential of treadmill exercise to promote practice and job. From days 4 to 8 after the frst acid injec- Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Korea National Rehabilita- tion, mice received 0 (n=11) and 8 (n=8) J/cm2 dosages of the laser tion Center, Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea treatment every day. Material and Methods: tation, Kitakyushu, Japan, 2Moji Medical Center, Rehabilitation, Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The cause Guangzhou, China of this denervation is unclear, but overuse, aging, immunological fac- tors and chronic infammation are thought to be contributing factors. A total of 10 Wistar rats were set as normoten- samples were collected in those subjects. Funding ac- On Day 7, 14 and 21, changes of behavioral test by Morris water knowledgements: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. Non-pharmacological intervention is helpful not only reducing fat component but also controlling the endothelial devastating cytokine. Thanabalan2 ly used in rehabilitation and sports activities to improve muscle strength, balance and fexibility. Polarized macrophages are impor- 1Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2University Kebangsaan Malaysia, tant for immunity and broadly classifed into two groups: M1 and M2 Department of Surgery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3University Ke- macrophage. M2 macrophage activation is usually anti-infammato- bangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilitation Unit - Department of Ortho- ry. The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Rehabilitation The gastrocnemius and soleus muscle were processed for immuno- Medicine- Incheon St. Material and Methods: Human bone marrow derived- also signifcantly increased (control 89±38 vs. The hindlimb mouse model of lymphedema ment of Rehabilitation Medicine- School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, was obtained. Four Department of Pharmacology- School of Medicine, Kitakyusyu, weeks after the surgery, the mice were sacrifced. Conclusion: Taken together, this study revealed tonin transporter, are clinically important antidepressants. Its neurorestorative properties in preclinical model of stroke of cilostazol to assess the monoamine uptake. Results: The tomato juice 1China Medical University, Department of Physical Therapy Grad- administration group showed the largest of number of brain neu- uate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Taichung, Taiwan, 2China ron cell expression (145. Con- Department of Physical Therapy- Graduate Institute of Rehabilita- clusion: The administration of tomato juice and physical exercise tion Science, Taichung, Taiwan intervention on menopause rat increase the neuronal cells in the Introduction/Background: Several evidence indicates that fbrosis post central gyrus cerebral cortex and the tomato group showed the plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of hyper- highest increasing of neuron cells.