By B. Kaffu. Brandeis University.
These children have more monal replacement may play a role in the variable airway obstruction cheap beconase aq 200MDI otc, increased airway hyperre- susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens cheap beconase aq 200MDI without a prescription, particularly sponsiveness, and alterations in lung maturation with adenocarcinoma. Those children exposed to environmental cancer in women include a family history of lung tobacco smoke in the postnatal period have an cancer; occupational exposures to compounds such increased incidence of cough, wheezes, respira- as asbestos, cadmium, beryllium, silicosis, radon; tory illnesses, and infection. These children tend to have nosis and equal or better survival with treatment an increase in childhood asthma, earlier develop- than do men, regardless of cell type and stage. Patients wishing to conceive include small air airway size, which alters the or who do not want ovulation suppressed should distribution of toxins contained in tobacco, hor- undergo thoracotomy with repair of diaphragmatic monal mechanisms, and variations in cytochrome defects, if present, followed by pleurodesis. Spontaneous pneumothoraces with sirolimus, but the tumor size increased after 718 Women’s Issues in Pulmonary Medicine (Levine) discontinuation of treatment. Report of the Working Group on Asthma American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Pregnancy: management of asthma during and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease An article suggesting that there is no sex difference in rates of Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society lung cancer with comparable smoking histories. This is the most recent evidence-graded consensus conference Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001; 28:553–569 regarding antithrombotic agents in pregnancy. Lancet 1999; 353:1258–1265 Position statement: the use of newer asthma and allergy This is a thorough review in this area, with a detailed discussion medications during pregnancy. Lung cancer in This article discusses the pathophysiology of asthma and the women: emerging differences in epidemiology, biology, effects of asthma on pregnancy and vice versa, and reviews the and therapy. Chest 2005; 128:370–381 National Asthma Education Program guidelines for the treat- An update on the epidemiology, biology, and therapy of lung ment of asthma in pregnancy. This has been termed work-aggravated realm of adult asthma asthma and, from the point of view of medical man- • Outline mechanisms by which asthma develops from agement, is similar to other forms of occupational exposures in the work setting asthma. This determination usually requires a clear statement in the medical record as to whether the patient’s This chapter expands on the introduction to occupa- asthma is or is not occupational. If nonoccupational, it is safe to allow monary Disease Certiﬁcation “Occupational and the patient to continue in the same job, focusing on Environmental Disease” content category topics of better medical management. Braman’s chapter on “Asthma,” we is employed and who presents with new-onset read that: “Allergens and occupational factors are asthma should thus be questioned about occupa- considered the most important causes of asthma. Two Natural History of Occupational types of asthma have been described: asthma that Asthma follows a latent period of exposure to either a high- or low-molecular-weight sensitizing antigen, and Numerous useful reviews, both brief and com- prehensive, are available. One form of irritant asthma is begin weeks to years after working with a new sub- called reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, a condi- stance that can cause asthma. Symptoms may be tion that usually results from the sudden inhalation minor or intermittent at ﬁrst and gradually increase of a large dose of a highly irritating substance. Most Frequently Reported Speciﬁc Causes or Contributors Pathophysiology, Histopathology, and to Work-Related Asthma in the United States* Physiologic Mechanisms Di-isocyanates Stainless steel welding plume In these respects, occupational asthma does not dif- Formaldehyde fer, or differs only in minor ways, from other types Paint 14,15 of asthma. History: The combination of the following four elements of the patient’s medical history has a 64% In some cases, patients will have had childhood positive predictive value in the diagnosis of oc- asthma that remitted in adolescence, but for others, cupational asthma16: current diagnosis of asthma; this onset of asthma will be the ﬁrst. The cardinal and onset of asthma after entering the workplace; feature is the onset of asthma while working with association between symptoms of asthma and inhalational exposure to a substance that can cause work; and workplace exposure to an agent known asthma, although there is emerging evidence that to give rise to occupational asthma. Allergic rhinitis repeated skin contact with some substances can to the offending substance often precedes the onset result in respiratory sensitization. Pulmonary Function Testing: Comprehensive, evidence-based reviews of diagnostic approaches to occupational asthma17,18 recommend the following Causes of Occupational Asthma tests in addition to a medical history and physical More than 400 substances have been identiﬁed examination: as causes of occupational asthma. Some allergists also have skin-prick asthma for a few causes of occupational asthma, testing reagents for some of the large-molecular- but testing for these is not clinically useful. However, there is no speciﬁc tory of atopy or cigarette smoking is a risk factor for IgE for many of the less common low-molecular- sensitization to high-molecular-weight substances weight substances. A positive test result for a (eg, biologically derived antigens, such as proteins speciﬁc IgE to the suspected antigen increases from laboratory animals or wheat ﬂour) but not for the diagnostic certainty of occupational asthma. Unlike other types of occupational four times per day during days at work and days asthma, severe cases may be associated with epi- away from work may also help to distinguish sodic fever on exposure. Clinical inter- In the case of occupational asthma, a most pretation by visual comparison of the patient’s difﬁcult initial decision may be in determining exposure history has been found to be as accurate whether it is safe to allow the patient to return to as computer-based interpretation. Once a diagnosis of occupational asthma is made, it is often important for the treat- Treatment of Occupational Asthma ing physician to determine whether disability is present and, if so, to what extent. As with all asthma, the treatment goal is to For any pulmonary patient who presents with remove the patient from exposure to triggers and a request for disability evaluation, the physi- to minimize symptoms by controlling asthma with cian must ﬁrst decide whether the lung disease medications that have the least adverse effects for is nonoccupational (in which case federal Social the patient. Once diagnosed, the main difference Security Administration disability criteria apply between treating occupational and nonoccupational if the patient is totally disabled), or whether it is asthma is removing the patient from exposure. This occupational (ie, caused by the job) in which state- treatment begins with notifying the patient and, with speciﬁc worker compensation disability rules may the patient’s permission, the employer, and trying to apply. It is usually much to the patient’s advan- American Medical Association Guides tage to continue working for the same employer, but in circumstances in which the offending agent has Many states require the physician to apply the been removed, the reduction of air levels has been criteria of the Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent achieved or, in some cases, respiratory protection Impairment20 in rating the degree of disability for has been added.
Williams & Wilkins beconase aq 200MDI amex, naturopathic care since it is capable of being used to Baltimore remove obstacles to optimal adaptation 200MDI beconase aq amex, as well as 3. DiGiovanna E, Schiowitz S (eds) 1991 An encouraging enhanced functionality and self- osteopathic approach to diagnosis and regulating processes. Mitchell F Jr, Moran P, Pruzzo N 1979 An Ruddy (1962) developed a method of rapid pulsating evaluation of osteopathic muscle energy contractions against resistance which he termed ‘rapid procedures. Pruzzo, Valley Park, Missouri Chapter 7 • Modalities, Methods and Techniques 233 Box 7. The restriction barrier should be engaged and, following a 5- to 7-second isometric contraction involving no more than 20% of available strength, an attempt should be made to passively move to a new barrier, without force or stretching. Unlike the period required to hold soft tissues at stretch (see next exercise), in order to achieve increased extensibility, no such feature is part of the protocol for treating joints. Once a new barrier is reached, having taken out available slack without force after the isometric contraction, a subsequent contraction is called for and the process is repeated. A variety of directions of resisted effort may prove useful (or, put differently, a range of different muscles should be contracted isometrically) when attempting to achieve release and mobilization of a restricted joint, including Figure 7. Reproduced with permission from Chaitow (2006) the joint, such as the sacroiliac, sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. Patient-directed isometric efforts towards the restriction is introduced at this ‘bind’ barrier (if acute) or a little barrier, as well as away from it, and using a combination short of it (if chronic). Note: These reﬁnements as to of forces, often of a ‘spiral’ nature, may be experimented position in relation to the barrier are not universally with if a joint does not release using the most obvious agreed and are based on the teaching of Janda directions of contraction. Level 4 is the same as the previous description the stretching/lengthening of shortened, contracted but the patient actively moves the tissues or ﬁbrosed soft tissues, or for reducing tone in hyper- through the fullest possible range of motion, tonic muscles. Because of its contiguous nature, and digital pressure to the involved tissue in a direction its virtually universal presence in association with proximal to distal while the patient actively moves the every muscle, vessel and organ, the potential inﬂu- muscle through its range of motion in both eccentric ences of fascia are profound if shortening, adhesions, and concentric contraction phases. John Barnes (1996) writes: ‘Studies suggest that It can be seen from the descriptions offered that fascia, an embryological tissue, reorganizes along the there are different models of myofascial release, some lines of tension imposed on the body, adding support to taking tissue to the elastic barrier and waiting for a misalignment and contracting to protect tissues from release mechanism to operate and others in which further trauma. Barriers of resistance are engaged load (pressure) are required when treating fascia and these are forced to retreat but by virtue of the because of its collagenous structure. In this way the physiological tive way of lengthening (‘releasing’) fascia rapidly responses of creep and hysteresis are produced, (Hammer 1999). This is a non-violent, direct approach that has little potential for causing damage. When active or passive movements are combined Methodology with the basic methodology, caution is required, Myofascial release is a hands-on soft tissue technique depending on the status of the patient and the tissues, that facilitates a stretch into the restricted fascia. For example, enthesitis sustained pressure is applied into the tissue barrier; could occur if localized repetitive stretching combined after 90 to 120 seconds the tissue will undergo with compression were applied close to an attachment histological length changes allowing the ﬁrst release to (Simons et al 1999). The practitioner’s contact (which could involve thumb, ﬁnger, knuckle Alternatives or elbow) moves longitudinally along muscle Since myofascial release is utilized to lengthen short- ﬁbers, distal to proximal, with the patient ened soft tissues, all other methods that have this passive. Any • Phlebitis dehydration of the ground substance will decrease the • Recent scar tissue free gliding of the collagen ﬁbers. Applying pressure to • Syphilitic articular or peri-articular lesions any crystalline lattice increases its electrical potential, • Uncontrolled diabetic neuropathy attracting water molecules, thus hydrating the area. This is the piezoelectric effect of manual connective Naturopathic perspectives tissue therapy. As fascial tissues distort in Further reading response to pressure, the process is known by the 1. Shea M 1993 Myofascial release – a manual for shorthand term ‘creep’ (Twomey & Taylor 1982). Shea Educational Hysteresis is the process of heat and energy exchange Group, Juno Beach, Florida by the tissues as they deform (Dorland’s Medical 2. The tissue creep results in loss of Indications/description energy (hysteresis), and repetition of loading before the tissue has recovered will result in greater deformation Joint restrictions, or pain on movement involving a (Norkin & Levangie 1992). Signiﬁcant resting Cautions symptoms are usually associated with a degree of • Acute arthritis and other inﬂammatory underlying pathology far beyond that of relatively conditions (contraindicated during acute minor biomechanical abnormalities (Wilson 2007). In the cervical spine the direction of translation (48% increase in pain-free grip strength). In some instances, as well as actively moving improves talocrural dorsiﬂexion, a major the head and neck toward the direction of impairment following ankle sprain, and restriction while the practitioner maintains the relieves pain in subacute populations. If correctly applied there should be an instant, This is a particularly non-invasive mobilization and lasting, functional improvement. Mulligan (2003) contends that many symptoms Validation of efﬁcacy = 5 (see Table 7. The key word and torsion’ in their passage over highly mobile joints, here is ‘assist’ – ‘force’ has no place in Mulligan’s through bony canals, intervertebral foramina, fascial vocabulary. This articular track – incor- Stewart (2000) notes that neural damage can result porating spin, slide, glide, rotation, etc. To facilitate controlled, free movement conditions, vasculitis, irradiation and marked tem- while minimizing compressive forces is the overall perature change such as intense cold. Thus the therapist is guided as to what is produce abnormalities in, or interference with, free normal movement by its symptom-free status. Morris (2006b) notes: ‘Restricted neural mobility can occur anywhere along the neuraxis, nervous tissue Neural tension tests selectively tension, compress and supporting structures housed within the axial and attempt to glide tissue along a selected nerve skeleton, and also continuing into the periphery.
Additionally cheap beconase aq 200MDI with visa, regional vasospasm can result from use of vasoactive medications effective beconase aq 200MDI, such as digoxin, diuretics, cocaine, or vasopressin. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis • The historical factors may be nonspecific, but the diagnosis should be pursued in any person >50 yr old with sudden onset of acute abdominal pain and with an associated low flow, atherosclerotic, or hypercoaguable disease state. Abdominal 5 distention and rectal bleeding may be the only initial complaint in up to 25% of the cases. The only initial abnormality on physical exam may be the presence of fecal occult blood, occurring in over half of the cases. Additionally, metabolic acidosis with a base deficit, an elevated amylase, and evidence of hemoconcentration are sensitive (present in more than half the cases) but nonspecific findings. They may show pneumatosis intestinalis, portal vein gas, or thumb printing in late disease. Angiography is contraindicated in shock states or with patients on vasopressor therapy because they confound the diagnosis of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Common initial misdiagnoses include con- stipation, gastroenteritis, ileus, and small bowel obstruction. Younger pa- tients with collagen vascular disease are also at risk of aortic dissection. This dilatation is a mechanism of the artery to compensate for a proximal stenosis. Clinical Presentation • Classical presentation of pulsatile mass in the patient with abdominal pain and pulse deficits is not always present. Patients presenting with an abdominal aneurysm with abdominal pain are ruptured until proven otherwise and surgical consult is mandatory. Rupture unstable: surgical repair The differentiation between a stable and unstable rupture is trivial as the process is dynamic. The perioperative mortality is over 25% secondary acute myocardial infarction in emergent surgery compared to fewer than 5% for elective. Therefore it is preferred, but not always possible, to prime the patient for the operating room. Bowel Obstruction Risk Factors/Etiology • Small bowel obstruction is typically caused by postoperative adhesions, hernias, or tumors. It is likely due to a hereditary hypofixation of the cecum to the posterior abdominal wall. Clinical Presentation and Diagnoses • Acute onset of severe intermittent abdominal pain followed by nausea and vomiting is the common clinical manifestation. Obstipation may be absent early on or in a partial obstruction, and its absence does not exclude the diagnosis. A supine abdominal film along with either a lateral decubitus or upright abdominal films are minimally needed for diagnosis. An upright chest film may be added to search for free air under the dia- phragm indicating a perforated viscous. The small bowel is differentiated from the large bowel by the presence of “valvulae conniventes” which are numerous, narrowly spaced and cross the entire lu- men. A “string of pearls” sign is highly suggestive of small bowel obstruction and is described as a line of air pockets in a fluid filled small bowel. Air fluid levels in a stepladder pattern are also suggestive of a small bowel obstruction. If not, sigmoid volvulus can be diagnosed by the classic “birds beak” sign on barium enema. Distended large bowel in the left lower quadrant with absence of right-sided gas may indicate a cecal volvulus. The intermittent nature of the pain is suggestive of bowel obstruction but is also present in mesenteric ischemia. Treatment • Early nasogastric decompression, aggressive fluid resuscitation, broad spectrum anti- biotics including coverage of Gram negatives and anaerobes, and early surgical consul- tation are the mainstays of treatment of small and large bowel obstructions. Up to 75% of partial small bowel obstructions and up to one-third of complete small bowel obstructions will resolve with decompression and fluid resuscitation alone. Strangu- lated obstructions indicated by fever, tachycardia, and/or localized tenderness are op- erative cases. Uncomplicated obstructions are usually initially treated conservatively, with surgery reserved for treatment failures. Disposition • These patients are all admitted to the hospital, almost always under the care of a surgeon. The highest incidence occurs in 10-30 yr olds, with atypical presentations more common in the very young or very old and women of child-bearing age. Clinical Presentation and Diagnoses • The classic description is of periumbilical, epigastric, or diffuse dull pain migrating over several hours to McBurney’s point in the right lower quadrant, with the pain changing in character from dull to sharp as the overlying peritoneum becomes in- flamed.
The distinct advantage of cryother- tact method that uses ionized argon gas (plasma) to apy lies in the fact that the normal airway tissue is achieve tissue coagulation and hemostasis order beconase aq 200MDI visa. As with laser therapy generic beconase aq 200MDI with amex, the it only requires one bronchoscopy; however, the risks of electrocautery include airway perforation, catheter has to stay in place for 20 to 60 h, which airway ﬁres, and damage to the bronchoscope. The main advantage of brachytherapy as compared with Photodynamic Therapy external-beam radiation is the fact that less normal tissue is exposed to the toxic effects of radiation. The greatest incidence of hemorrhage occurs Because the laser is not a heat source, airway ﬁres during the treatment of tumors in the right and are not an issue. Similar to cryotherapy, maximal effects are delayed, and a repeat, “clean-out” bronchoscopy Montgomery is credited as initiating the wide- should be performed 24 to 48 h after drug activa- spread use of airway stents after his development tion. Newer drugs are being developed with the hope of increasing tumor selectivity and Airway stents are the only technology that can alle- reducing the duration of skin phototoxicity. They are com- has been shown to be curative for early-stage lung monly used in conjunction with the other modalities cancer of the airways and is an especially attrac- for patients with intrinsic or mixed disease. As with any procedure, it is crucial to understand the indica- Brachytherapy tions and contraindications of the procedure as well as be able to anticipate, prevent, and manage the Brachytherapy refers to endobronchial radia- associated complications. In a study108 of 112 subjects in whom asthma For malignant airway obstruction, the only appro- control was impaired, bronchial thermoplasty priate metal stents are covered models, which reduced the rate of mild exacerbations, and at minimize tumor in-growth. Some authors believe 12 months, there were signiﬁcantly greater improve- that there is no indication for an uncovered metal ments in the bronchial-thermoplasty group than stent. In patient with tracheoesophageal ﬁstula, easily identiﬁed, such as the carina, are marked, double stenting of the esophagus and airway is as is the target. The location of the guide in the electromagnetic ﬁeld is accurate Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction to 5 mm in the x, y, and z axes, as well as yaw, pitch, and roll. It is also less expensive and does electromagnetic ﬁeld and rely on high-deﬁnition not require transport of a critically ill patient to virtual bronchoscopic road maps with ultrathin the operating room. Major adverse events of a semirigid or rigid thoracoscope with the intent including hypoxemia, pneumothorax, bleeding, of draining pleural ﬂuid, obtaining biopsies of and death may also occur, and both patient and the parietal pleura, and/or instilling an agent to procedure-related factors are important determi- achieve pleurodesis. The British Thoracic Society has published thoracic surgery is typically performed in the oper- their recommendations concerning the perfor- ating room with general anesthesia and lung isola- mance of diagnostic ﬂexible bronchoscopy. These tion with two or three ports, medical thoracoscopy recommendations include steps that should be is commonly performed in an endoscopy suite with taken to minimize complications. Common indications more advanced procedures including rigid bron- for medical thoracoscopy include a recurrent exu- choscopy, pleuroscopy/thoracoscopy, indwelling dative effusion with no clear diagnosis or a known pleural catheters, and percutaneous tracheostomy malignant effusion requiring pleurodesis. Pleural palliation Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the most com- can be achieved in close to 90% of patients, and monly performed procedures by the pulmonolo- side effects are relatively few. Invasive and airway or pleural disease, it is best to obtain for- noninvasive strategies for management of sus- mal training in the subspecialty of interventional pected ventilator-associated pneumonia: a ran- pulmonology. Ultrasound-guided Inﬂammatory and immune processes in the human transbronchial needle aspiration: an experience in lung in health and disease: evaluation by bron- 242 patients. Bronchoal- alone for the detection of precancerous lesions: a veolar lavage in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmo- European randomised controlled multicentre trial. Hemopty- acquired pneumonia in a routine setting: a study sis: etiology, evaluation, and outcome in a tertiary on patients treated in a Finnish university hospital. Massive rate endobronchial brachytherapy effectively hemoptysis: what place for medical and surgical palliates symptoms due to airway tumors: the 10- treatment. Diagnosis domized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction of peripheral pulmonary lesions using a broncho- surgery with medical therapy for severe emphy- scope insertion guidance system combined with sema. Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma, a parasite, genomic analysis revealed that P jiroveci Legionella, and Chlamydia is described but seems is in fact a fungus that infects only humans, to be relatively uncommon, especially in patients whereas P carinii is pathogenic only in immunode- with severe immunosuppression. The organism cannot be cultured reli- an aerobic Gram-positive acid-fast bacillus, may ably outside the lung, and its source is still not cause focal consolidation, endobronchial disease, identiﬁed; therefore, the precise route of transmis- and cavitation, usually in patients with advanced sion is elusive. Patients usually present with fever, but are still so profoundly immunocompromised chills, productive cough, and localized areas of that it is ineffective. Other nontuberculous mycobacteria rence of opportunistic infections, probably because also cause pulmonary infections in patients with M tuberculosis is more virulent. Unilobar radiographic involvement, tion who come from endemic areas when immu- cavitation, nodules, and pleural effusions also nodeficiency permits the reactivation of latent have been described. The diagnosis is established by demonstrating the pres- Life-threatening pulmonary aspergillosis may ence of the organism by microscopy or culture in develop in patients with advanced immunosup- respiratory specimens. The following two common patterns of disease have been identiﬁed: an invasive paren- Neoplastic Diseases of the Lungs chymal infection, which is usually fatal, and a predominantly bronchial disease presenting with Kaposi Sarcoma dyspnea and airway obstruction. This diagnosis has patients with advanced disease and may involve traditionally required histologic proof, because the airways, lungs tissue, mediastinal lymph Aspergillus is ubiquitous, and its presence in naso- nodes, and pleura. Therapy with standard antimicrobial the pulmonary endothelium may stimulate apop- agents is usually effective, but symptoms are likely tosis, growth, and proliferation. It documents the decreasing rates of the agent that causes progressive multifocal opportunistic infections and death in addition to the trends leukoencephalopathy.