By M. Vasco. Pacific States University.
Robin) Berkhout (yeast) and gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani & Chal- mers order phenytoin 100 mg without a prescription, Enterobacter saerogenes Hormaeche & Edwards discount 100mg phenytoin with mastercard, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schroeter) Trevisan and Propiobacterium acne (Gilchrist) Douglas & Gunter (Wille and Kydonieus 2003). Barnes and Moore (1997) demonstrated that caprilic (C-8) and capric (C-10) fatty acids are inhibitory to germination of M. Downing and Lindholm (1982) indicated that the majority of aliphatic components in cattle sebum are above C12, however, a C10 fatty acid com- ponent was reported. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 137 Increasing temperature also increased the nitrogen, sodium and potassium content of sweat (Singh and Newton 1978; Jenkinson and Mabon 1973; Jenkinson et al. Soluble proteins in cattle sweat, particularly immunoglobin A and transferrin are known to play a role in the immune response against microorganisms (Jenkinson et al. A similar effect may occur with fungi, as Li and Holdom (1995) demonstrated that increased nitrogen could increase fungal growth in vitro. The skin microora is known to coincide with the distribution of surface sebum and sweat emulsion which is a likely nutrient source (Lloyd et al. Skin microora The microbial population found on the cattle skin is present in the outer layers of the stratum corneum and in the hair follicle infundibulum (Lloyd et al. This population consists mainly of mixed microcolonies of coccoid and rod shaped bacteria and, occa- sionally, yeast and lamentous fungi are also observed (Lloyd et al. The skin microbial population is highly specialised and only a limited number of inhabitants are capable of continued growth and development (Jenkinson 1992). Non-resident pathogenic bacteria face not only the skin s defence mechanism, but intense biological competition (Jenkinson 1992). Ticks which are reported to have shown natural infection by fungi have been collected from soil or vegetation (Kalsbeek et al. The latter is probably more likely, considering the relative rarity with which entomopathogenic fungi have been recorded from cattle skin. In skin scrapings of ruminants, the fungal dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Blanchard, Trichophyton rubrum (Castell. It is of interest that, from the literature reviewed, there are no entomopathogenic fungi isolated from permanent ectoparasites, (i. This suggests that skin microora or contaminants may not be contributing signicantly to infection of permanent ectoparasites possibly because the skin microenvironment may be hostile for infection. It should be considered that entomopatho- genic fungi capable of surviving on the cattle surface may be highly effective because the target organisms may not have developed natural immunity. In eld studies with grasshoppers and locusts, three distinct routes of fungal infection were identied: (a) direct impaction of the target with spray droplets, (b) sec- ondary pick-up by the target (residual infection) of spray residues from vegetation and soil, and (c) secondary cycling of the pathogen from individuals infected from the rst two modes (Bateman 1997; Bateman and Chapple 2001). The extent to which the three routes contribute overall tick mortality from an applied pathogen on cattle is likely to vary due to the peculiarities of the cattle skin microenvironment. Direct impaction The hair density and length in the cattle coat varies between cattle breeds, season and other environmental effects (Berman and Volcani 1961; Steelman et al. The nature of the cattle coat is likely to limit the penetration of applied conidia thus limiting contact with ticks on the skin surface. Formulation and application techniques are likely to strongly inuence the contribution of direct impaction to overall mortality. Secondary pick-up Residual infection can also make a signicant contribution to overall mortality. In eld experiments, 40 50% of the total infection of the grasshopper Hieroglyphus daganensis Krauss resulted from residual infection. Residual infection is inuenced by initial infectivity, persistence (Thomas et al. However, it should be considered that emulsiable adjuvant oils may cause conidia to be too strongly bound to hair, limiting availability to transfer to the target. Alternatively, conidia too loosely bound may become easily dislodged by movement of animals or rainfall. Dillon and Charnley (1985) demonstrated that pre-soaking can reduce the time to germination of conidia. Further study is required to determine if pre-soaking can improve pathogenicity in ticks. Prolonging eld persistence of the conidia may improve the performance of the fungus in the eld as there is a higher probability of the target encountering the entomopathogen (Inglis et al. There are few studies that have attempted to measure persistence of applied entomopathogens on cattle. This suggests that time which conidia can persist on cattle may be relatively short and may limit residual infection. Several factors which either encourage death or germination of conidia may inuence persistence of conidia. These laboratory results were not replicated in the eld where persistence was much greater, presumably because many conidia were shielded from direct sunlight, perhaps by their location on the vegetation. Little is known about the tolerance of an entomopathogen to sunlight on the insect body, as it is assumed that penetration occurs within 24 h in most insects (Inglis et al.
Along with this phenytoin 100 mg cheap, take some niacin (best taken in its niacinamide form to avoid face flushing) in your meals to aid in sound sleep at night buy phenytoin 100mg free shipping. Certain nontoxic natural herb teas have been used for years to help folk to go to sleep at night. After only a few hours of sleep loss, the body begins experiencing momentary lapses into sleep, each one of which lasts only a split second. Each micro-sleep is a period of blankness, or it may be filled with wisps of dreams. As the sleep loss increases, the micro-sleeps increase to two or three seconds at a time. Nervous tension, the use of caffeine products, and too much salt in the diet, all are items found to cause sleeplessness at night. Neutral temperature baths for 8 minutes or more are excellent for relaxing and calming the mind, and preparing one for sleep. Gutwirth, in his book, How to Sleep Well, describes a method to help insomniacs learn how to go to sleep. The point here is twofold: to learn what it feels like to relax, and then to do it when you want to so you can go to sleep at night. Going to bed within an hour or so after supper is hard on the heart and other vital organs, and exhausts the brain. There appears to be a positive correlation between going to sleep at night after a big meal and the frequency of heart attacks. Older people need less sleep, but at the same time they may have a harder time getting it. If you tend to be sleepless at night, get some active exercise in the day, and take that outdoor walk before retiring. If you still feel tired from lack of sleep, the midday nap will do much to solve your problem. If you are napping during the day, do not fear some sleeplessness at night, for just by laying there you are having a good rest. During the day, rest your eyes by shutting them occasionally or by gazing outdoors upon the things of nature. Too much talk wears people out: those who do it and those who have to listen to it. Rest your mind by not constantly dwelling upon a particular problem and trying endlessly to solve it. If you cannot solve it in five minutes, forget it is a dictum that has helped this writer. Rest your lungs by going out-of-doors every so often through the day and drinking in the fresh air deeply. If you smoke, stop; if you do not smoke, refuse to work in rooms where people smoke. Few people have it, but it is as near as your silent prayer to your Creator as you go through the day. For these rest, freedom from care, and a spare diet, are essential to restoration of health. Roaming through the fields and the woods, picking the flowers, listening to the songs of the birds, will do far more than any other agency toward their recovery. When every other voice is hushed, and in quietness we wait before Him, the silence of the soul makes more distinct the voice of God. It excites the appetite, and renders the digestion of food more perfect, and induces sound, sweet sleep. The work of digestion should not be carried on through any period of the sleeping hours. We feel confident that disease and great suffering are brought on by sleeping in rooms with closed and curtained windows, not admitting pure air and the rays of the sun. The room may not have had an airing for months, nor the advantages of a fire for weeks, if at all. It is dangerous to health and life to sleep in these rooms until the outside air shall have circulated through them for several hours and the bedding shall have been dried by the fire. Every room in the house should be thoroughly ventilated every day, and in damp weather should be warmed by fires. Every room in your dwelling should be daily thrown open to the healthful rays of the sun, and the purifying air should be invited in. If all would appreciate the sunshine, and expose every article of clothing to its drying, purifying rays, mildew and mold would be prevented. This alone is sufficient to greatly enfeeble the action of the heart and lungs, thereby affecting the whole system. While care may be needful to protect the infant from a draught of air or from any sudden and too great change, especial care should be taken to have the child breathe a pure, invigorating atmosphere. In critical cases this may be necessary; but it is often the case that more harm is done the sick by this practice than good.
There are large inequalities in perinatal health between and within the countries of Europe phenytoin 100 mg sale. Poverty and low social status are associated with preterm birth discount phenytoin 100mg without a prescription, low birth weight and perinatal death. Perinatal health problems affect young people - babies and adults starting families and, as such, have long term consequences. Impairments associated with perinatal events represent a long-term burden for children, their families and health and social services. It is increasingly understood that a healthy pregnancy and infancy reduce the risk of common adult illnesses, such as hypertension and diabetes. This life-course approach to our health begins at conception or perhaps before and suggests that better management of the major morbidities associated with pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction or preterm birth may reap large dividends in overall population health. Finally, the new techniques that have contributed to the improvements in health outcomes are not risk-free and raise ethical issues that require continual evaluation. Developments in the management of subfertility now mean that infertile couples can conceive, but these treatments increase multiple births which have higher mortality and morbidity and are associated with preterm birth and congenital anomalies [6, 7]. Improved antenatal screening techniques bring up the difficult issue of when to terminate a pregnancy. The challenge was to define indicators that cover common concerns and have the same meaning within the different health information systems within the member states. The project s guiding principles were to consolidate 160 existing work on perinatal health indicators and to redress known methodological shortcomings of these indicators. The project also enlisted the assistance of specialists in the field of congenital anomalies and convened a consultative panel of midwives. The latter represent important aspects of perinatal health, but further work is required before they can be operationalised in the member states. Its indicators are thus based on data sources that cover the entire population of births. Data sources that only include births from selected hospitals are often biased and these biases will differ depending on the hospitals that are included in the health information system. In most European health systems, maternity units are classified based on their capacity to provide services to higher risk patients often termed levels of care . In countries where home births are a delivery option, these should also be represented. When population-based data do not exist on a national level, it may be possible to use population-based data on smaller geographical areas, such as the region. This table illustrates the large number of different types of routine information systems that exist for perinatal health reporting. Most of these routine data systems collect information at delivery and during the immediate postpartum hospitalization stay and indicators based on data from this period are the easiest to collect. When longer-term information is needed, other methods need to be used, such as surveys, registers on specific conditions or data linkage with other databases. Institutionalized audits or confidential inquiries have been developed by many countries to collect more detailed data on maternal and perinatal deaths and to ensure complete enumeration of these events. All countries have civil registration systems, but the usefulness of these systems for monitoring perinatal health differ. In France, for instance, medical information cannot be included in these systems and data are not available on gestational age or birthweight . In other countries, however, some clinical information is available from these systems either directly or through record linkage . The best data on perinatal health outcomes come from birth registers, many of which have been in existence for decades. For example, the Nordic countries have longstanding birth registers that are used for routine surveillance and epidemiological research . Surveys are done on a representative sample of births and can either cover general perinatal health indicators or focus on specific topics. In France, the National Perinatal Surveys, done on a representative sample of women after delivery in hospital, cover all aspects of perinatal health and care . Surveys are also used to get routine information on infant feeding, as for instance in the United Kingdom, because data are necessary on practices after discharge from the maternity unit. Hospital discharge data are not frequently used for reporting on perinatal health outcomes, but these systems could be important sources for data on morbidities related to childbearing, both for the child and the mother. More research and harmonization of existing practices is necessary to verify that data from these sources are reliable and comparable across countries, however. Finally, profession based registers make it possible to get good data on antenatal care. The Netherlands uses linked professional based databases, including midwives, general practitioners, obstetricians and neonatologists . Itisrequiredbylaw andneededfor them ostcom pletesourceof datainterm sof clinicalinform ationaboutbirthsandfactors legalpurposesandaccesstoidentity inclusiveness. Civilregistrationrecordsm ayinclude Inthecaseof som epregnancy-relateddeaths, inform ationabouttheparents ordeceased thedeath m ayberegisteredbutthepregnancy person ssocialbackgroundwhich doesnot m aynotberecorded. Birth R egisters Population-basedregistersatanational, Com paredwith m ostcivilregistrationsystem s, Although coverageisverygoodinm any regionalorlocallevelarebasedonnotifications considerablym oredataitem sarerecorded.
If it is after this time buy generic phenytoin 100mg on line, we can do a pregnancy test order 100 mg phenytoin fast delivery, and if you are pregnant, support you in your decision about what to do (including referring you for a termination). We recommend a return visit in two weeks time and follow up appointment in three months time. If you want to report to the police what has happened, we can put you in touch with the local station. However, forensic evidence needs to be taken within a week of the assault happening. A Health Adviser can talk through the issues with you, as this can be a difficult decision to make. Women and men who have been sexually assaulted can apply for compensation from the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority. To be eligible for compensation, it is necessary that the assault is reported to the police. Physical Symptoms Sleep pattern disturbance: difficulty falling asleep, waking during the night, or other types of insomnia. Controlled: characterised by a calm, composed, or subdued effect; feelings are masked or hidden. Inability to concentrate Behavioural Reactions Unable to go out alone and/or with others. This coping and reorganisation process began at different times for individual victims. What was consistent was that they did experience an acute phase of disorganisation; many also experience mild to moderate symptoms in the reorganisation process. Very few victims reported no symptoms (Burgess and Holstrom 1978) Studies subsequent to Burgess and Holstrum have shown that the reorganisation phase is affected by the coping skills of the individual and the level of support she can rely on. It is inappropriate to judge the nature, severity or even actuality of the event by the way the victim presents. There is no arbitrary length of time after which the victim should be expected to have recovered. Treatment choice in psychological therapies and counselling: evidence based clinical practice guideline. Sexual and marital therapy: journal of the Association of Sexual and Marital Therapists. Working within the national clinic system, social workers had contact tracing and health promotion integrated into their role. After World War two, the job of contact tracer gradually became formalised and existed nationwide by the mid 1970 s. The combined tradition of social work and contact tracing has culminated in the sexual health adviser, with their core roles of partner notification, counselling and health promotion. This chapter is reflects on the circumstances that led to the emergence of a unique profession. The origins of the current system emerged from an alliance between the medical profession, moral campaigners and health promoters, which has occurred in the field of sexual health over the last 150 years. Indeed the suffragettes maintained that votes for women would see the end of prostitution, when women could pursue other types of work, and with it, the end of venereal disease. Christian zeal and the2 ideals of eugenics were the springboard for the first non medical efforts to combat venereal diseases. Adler describes how the chaplain of the Middlesex Hospital in 1849 found more3 fruit of (his) labours on the female venereal disease ward than on any other, recommending that syphilitic women were confined to their rooms except for divine service on Sundays. Modelled on the European system, they were implemented in specified garrison towns and allowed for the enforced medical examination and treatment of women suspected to be prostitutes, men and respectable women were seen as inappropriate for genital examination. Hospitals were established for this purpose, and it has been argued7 that the intention was for a supply of healthy prostitutes for the forces. The Association for8 Promoting the Extension of the Contagious Diseases Acts to the Civilian Population was formed. Dominated by the medical profession, it also had members from the Tory party and the clergy. In 1869 The National Association for the Repeal of the Acts was formed and they asked Josephine Butler to spearhead the campaign. Butler was well known as a campaigner who had published on the subject of the economic plight of women who needed to work. She had set up a home for working class girls and was involved with the Rescue Society, who rescued and reformed fallen women. The National Association was for men only so Butler and Elizabeth Wolstenholme formed the Ladies National Association to fight this campaign. She was an evangelical Christian, a vicars wife who believed that the repeal campaign was the divine mission that she had been waiting for. They published widely, attacking doctors for using legislation to flout basic moral principles, violate women and destroy civil liberties. The House was persuaded that Butlers rescue strategy to deal with prostitution was effective; they became uncomfortable about the state sanctioning immoral behaviour, and paying for it.
A telogen club comprises a central mass of trichilemmal keratin generic 100 mg phenytoin with mastercard, star-shaped in horizontal section cheap phenytoin 100 mg with amex, surrounded by trichil- emmal and brous sheaths, connecting telogen germinal units and hair shafts (Fig. After 2 to 4 months of telogen, the telogen germinal cells envelops the dermal papilla and grows down the existing follicular tract or stela to form an anagen hair (Fig. Subsequent hair cycling will continue throughout life for as long as the hair follicle is viable. A certain proportion of the hair follicles undergo growth, regression, and rest, continuously and independently. This process involves orchestration of a complex yet delicate interplay of molecular signals. A thorough knowledge of the gross and microscopic follicular anatomy in vertical and horizontal sections is essential for the accurate interpretation of the biopsy, leading to the successful evaluation of the patient with hair disorder. Note that total brosis without a vascular supply indicates cicatricial alopecia and a lack of ability for further cycling. The Structure of the Human Hair Follicle: Light Microscopy of Vertical and Horizontal Sections of Scalp Biopsies. Transverse microscopic anatomy of the human scalp: a basis for morphometric approach to disorders of the hair follicle. Label-retaining cells reside in the bulge area of pilosebaceous unit: implications for follicular stem cells, hair cycle and skin carcinogenesis. A comparison of vertical versus transverse sections in the evaluation of alopecia biopsy specimens. Vertical and Transverse sections of alopecia biopsy specimens: Combining the two to maximize diagnostic yield. Diagnostic and predictive value of horizontal sections of scalp biopsy specimens in male pattern androgenetic alopecia. Morphology and properties of Asian and Caucasian hair J Cosm Sic 2006; 57:327 338. Difference is hair follicle dermal papilla volume are due to extracellular matrix volume and cell number: implications for the control of hair follicle size and androgen responses. Atrichia caused by mutations in the Vitamin D receptor gene is a phenocopy of generalized atrichia caused by mutations in the hairless gene. Hair cosmetics can be helpful in camouaging hair loss by optimizing the appearance of exist- ing hair; however, hair cosmetics may also be the cause of hair loss when improperly used or used to excess. The primary goal of this chapter is to help the reader understand how shampoos and conditioners can be incorporated into a treatment algorithm for patients undergoing hair disease treatment. The secondary goal of this chapter is to understand hair loss precipitated by hair coloring, permanent waving, and hair straightening. While these procedures can beautify the hair or appeal to fashion concerns, they can also permanently damage the hair protein and produce premature hair breakage and loss. Haircare is important because damage to the non- living ber is permanent until replaced by new growth, which is a time-consuming activity. Cleansing the hair is actually a complex task, since the average woman has 4 to 8 square meters of hair surface area to clean (2). Thus, the goal of a shampoo is to maintain scalp hygiene while beautify- ing the hair. A shampoo that has high detergent properties can remove the outer cuticle of the hair shaft rendering it frizzy and dull, while a well-designed conditioning shampoo can impart shine and improve manageability. Proper shampoo selection can be the difference between attractive and unattractive hair. Shampoo Formulation Shampoos cleanse by utilizing synthetic detergents, also known as surfactants, which are amphiphilic. The lipophilic site binds to sebum and oil-soluble dirt while the hydrophilic site binds to water allowing removal of the sebum with water rins- ing (4). There are four basic categories of shampoo detergents: anionics, cationics, amphoterics, and nonionics (5). Usually, a shampoo is a combination of two to four detergents with various abilities to remove sebum, produce foam, and condition the hair. Creating the perfect balance between hygiene and beautication is the goal of a successful shampoo. Anionic detergents are the most popular cleanser in general purpose shampoos and are named for their negatively charged hydrophilic polar group. Common anionic detergents include the lauryl sulfates, laureth sulfates, sarcosines, and sulfosuccinates. The second most popular detergents are the amphoter- ics, which contain both an anionic and a cationic group. This allows them to behave as cationic 60 Draelos detergents at low pH and as anionic detergents at high pH. Amphoteric detergents such as cocamidopropyl betaine and sodium lau- raminopropionate are found in baby shampoos.
Sporulation was obtained by keeping cadavers at 25 C in darkness on tomato leaf discs (1 buy phenytoin 100 mg with mastercard. The eVects of the pesticides were tested by direct application on only newly formed cadavers (not stored ones) and on conidia discharged from them discount 100 mg phenytoin with mastercard. Cadavers, leaf discs or coverslips used in the bioassays were either dipped into, or sprayed with, the pesticides. The direct eVects were measured by immersing cadavers into the pesticides (cadaver treatment). The indirect eVect was measured by immersing leaf discs into pesti- cides (leaf treatment) before transferring the cadavers onto these discs. Similarly, direct and indirect eVects were tested by spraying cadavers on leaf discs or spraying leaf discs before transferring the cadavers onto them. Cadaver treatment Ten cadavers were introduced into microcentrifuge tubes and then 0. The content of each tube was then poured onto Wlter papers to drain the excess pesticides. Control cadavers were given the same treatments as described above except that they were introduced into distilled water amended with 0. After 2 h, the treated cadavers were individually placed on untreated discs of tomato leaves (1. The number of conidia discharged per mummy was estimated by observing the leaf disc directly under a compound microscope and scoring conidia numbers according to a categorical scale (0: no sporulation, 1: 1 100, 2: 101 500, and 3: >501 conidia). Sprayed cadavers were air-dried for 2 h and were then transferred individually onto unsprayed tomato leaf discs and processed as described above. A cadaver taken from the stock culture was then placed in the center of each disc, transferred onto moist sponge in a closed Petri dish and incubated at 25 C in darkness for 16 h, before sporulation was evaluated as described above. The coverslips with cadavers were then transferred onto a sponge soaked in distilled water in a closed Petri dish at 25 C in darkness for 16 h. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 291 Germination of conidia was observed using a compound microscope and the number of germinated and un-germinated conidia in Wve arbitrarily selected squares within the Weld of view was recorded using an enumeration counter. Total conidial germination included conidia that were in the process of forming or had already formed secondary conidia or capil- liconidia. Percent germination was computed by dividing the number of germinated conidia with the total number of conidia counted in a speciWed Weld and multiplying by 100. Only leaf discs with the highest spore numbers (category 3) were selected for the test. After 48 h of feeding on the treated leaf discs, the mites were transferred to new leaf discs each with a sporulating N. These mites stayed for 24 h on these leaf discs for contamination and were then transferred to new and larger leaf discs and observed daily for infection and mortality for 7 days. Dead mites were mounted and observed under the microscope for hyphal bodies to conWrm that the cause of death was N. Percentages germination and mortality were arcsine transformed before analysis to homogenize variances. A pre-planned compari- son between treatments was performed separately for each group of pesticide to determine within group treatment eVects. Xoridana sporulation was higher when the cadavers were immersed into pesticides than when sprayed (F35,324 =11. When cadavers were sprayed with the pesticides, Methomyl, Lambda-Cyhalothrin, Propargite and Abamectin had no eVect on sporulation at neither of the concentrations. Leaf treatment Cadavers placed on leaf discs that were immersed into Lambda-Cyhalothrin sporulated and produced as many conidia as the control (Table 3). In general, sporulation was signiWcantly higher when leaf discs were sprayed than when immersed in both Mancozeb and Captan (F11,108 = 11. Propargite and Mancozeb totally inhibited germination of conidia after immersion of coverslips. When coverslips were sprayed, germination was totally inhibited by Mancozeb and only 7. Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Captan also reduced germination in both application methods. Methomyl was the only pesticide that did not aVect germination when coverslips were either immersed or sprayed. Overall, germination of primary conidia was signiWcantly higher on coverslips that were sprayed than immersed (F29,60 = 22. More than half of the mites transferred to leaf discs treated with Propargite, Abamectin, Mancozeb or Lambda-Cyhalothrin died after 1 day indicating a direct eVect of the products on the mites and therefore these products were not used in the infectivity test (Table 5). Methomyl and Captan were the only pesticides used to test infectivity when leaf discs were either immersed or sprayed. Lower mortality of fungus- inoculated mites was observed when leaf discs were immersed rather than sprayed with Methomyl and Captan (F9,39 = 10. Neither Methomyl nor Captan aVected infectivity when leaf discs were sprayed with the pesticides. When cadavers were either immersed or sprayed, all pesticides except Mancozeb (not tested due to insuYcient sporulation) were used to test pathogenicity of the sporulating fungus.
The number of days in the year have been altered discount phenytoin 100 mg fast delivery, but the number of days in the week has not changed going back through time immemorial purchase phenytoin 100 mg with mastercard. All other Near-Eastern groups have disappeared, but the Jews have continued as a distinct people on down to the present time. Ask any Jew what day is the Sabbath, and he will tell you: It is the Seventh day of the week, Saturday. We know, from Scripture, that it was Christ who led the Israelites in the wilderness, and who therefore gave them the law on Mount Sinai (Nehemiah 9:12-13 with 1 Corinthians 10:4). Jesus did no sin (1 Peter 2:22), and "sin is the transgression of the law" (1 John 3:4). For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. He indicated that the Sabbath was to be sacredly observed forty years after Calvary. However, keeping of the yearly sabbaths (the ceremonial sabbaths), were eliminated at Calvary (Colossians 2:16). Cardinal Gibbons declared: "You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. Protestants agree: "There was and is a commandment to keep holy the Sabbath day, but that Sabbath day was not Sunday. It will be said, however, and with some show of triumph, that the Sabbath was transferred from the Seventh to the first day of the week. Historians tell us the change did not come until long after the Bible was finished. We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the council of Laodicea [A. And our kind heavenly Father has promised that, if we keep His Sabbath holy, we will receive the blessing He placed in the keeping that day! Little more than rapid walking for 30 minutes at a time three or four times a week can provide ten years of rejuvenation. Analyzing the results, de Vries concluded: "Men and women of 60 to 70 became as fit and energetic as those 20 to 30 years younger. Here is a brief summary of some of the things that regular exercise can begin doing for you right now: (1) Exercise will improve the tone of your muscles and blood vessels, changing them from weak and flabby tissue to strong and firm tissue, often reducing blood pressure in the process. Gradually it will grow stronger and pump more blood with each stroke, thus reducing the number of strokes needed to supply your body with life-giving blood. Now, let us look more closely at some of these facts: Exercise, consistently done with proper moderation as the years advance, can help prevent heart attacks as well as many other ailments. The blood vessels are carefully lined with smooth muscle fibers and if these special muscles do not receive adequate exercise, they gradually atrophy. The only way you can exercise a blood vessel is to put demand on the blood stream to provide more oxygen. Your heart has to beat faster to pump along a new supply of oxygen-carrying blood to meet this demand. As your heart increases its pumping action it pushes more blood through the system. Aside from the physiological benefit that exercise has on the heart, arteries and veins, it also improves muscle tone which will stand one in good stead in emergencies. One of the best ways to counteract it is the physical fatigue from healthful exercise. The involuntary muscles of the body for example those in the stomach and intestinal canal are strengthened by the exercise of their fibers equally as much as are the voluntary or external muscles. At the same time, the muscular structures of the body, such as the heart and uterus are improved. Difficult and painful menstruation is often relieved by a general program of physical exercise and a careful diet composed of natural foods. The proper development of their bones, muscles, and other body organs are keyed to physical activity. For some strange reason, children seem to sense their need of physical exercise more than do their elders. By walking about four miles per hour, he draws in about 2,500 cubic inches per minute, or five times more than that absorbed when sitting down. They require it for the restoration of physical and mental health in elderly invalids.