By L. Fraser. Duquesne University.
Here each score indicates an actual quantity cheap 250mg disulfiram with visa, and an equal amount separates any adjacent scores 250mg disulfiram mastercard. Therefore, the key here is that you can have less than zero, so an interval scale allows negative numbers. For example, temperature (in Celsius or Fahrenheit) involves an in- terval scale: Because 0° does not mean that zero heat is present, you can have even less heat at 21°. In research, interval scales are common with intelligence or personality tests: A score of zero does not mean zero intelligence or zero personality. Or, in our studying research we might determine the average test score and then assign students a zero if they are average, a 1, 2, and so on, for the amount they are above average, and a 1, 2, and so on, for the amount they are below average. Or, if we create conditions based on whether participants are in a positive, negative, or neutral mood, then this indepen- dent variable reflects an interval scale. Notice that with an interval scale, it is incorrect to make “ratio” statements that com- pare one score to another score. However, if we measure the same physical temperatures using the Fahren- heit scale, we would have about 35° and 39°, respectively. Essentially, if we don’t know the true amount of a variable that is present at 0, then we don’t know the true amount that is present at any other score. Only with our final scale of measurement, a ratio scale, do the scores reflect the true amount of the variable that is present. Here the scores measure an actual amount, there is an equal unit of measurement, and 0 truly means that none of the variable is present. The key here is that you cannot have negative numbers because you cannot have less than nothing. Also, only with ratio scores can we make “ratio” statements, such as “4 is twice as much as 2. Like- wise, in an experiment, if we compare the conditions of having people on diets consist- ing of either 1000, 1500, or 2000 calories a day, then this independent variable involves a ratio scale. Continuous versus Discrete Scales A measurement scale may be either continuous or discrete. A continuous scale allows for fractional amounts; it “continues” between the whole-number amounts, so decimals make sense. On the other hand, some variables involve a discrete scale, which are measured only in whole amounts. For example, whether you The Characteristics of Scores 29 are male or female or in first or second grade are discrete variables because you can be in one group or the other, but not in-between. Usually researchers assume that nominal or ordinal variables are discrete and that interval or ratio variables are at least theoretically continuous. Likewise, it sounds strange if the government reports that the average family has 2. However, it makes sense to treat this ratio variable as if it is continuous, because we can interpret what it means if this year the average is 2. How Might the To identify To judge who is To convey the To count the Scale be Used males and 1st, 2nd, etc. Both interval and ratio ous scales, which allow fractional amounts; nominal scales measure actual quantities, but negative and ordinal scales are assumed to be discrete scales, numbers can occur with interval scales and not which do not allow fractional amounts. Whether you are ahead or behind when gambling ber of correct statements you include, then a ratio involves a _____ scale. The number of hours you slept last night involves essay is better or worse than what the professor a _____ scale. Whether you are a lieutenant or major in the army pass/fail, which is dichotomous); if it is based on the involves a _____ scale. You’ll frequently encounter such terms as relationship, independent and dependent variable, condition, or statistic. Often it is in the title of a graph, so seeing “Agility as a Function of Age” indicates that the graph shows the relationship between X scores that measure participants’ ages and Y scores that measure agility. For exam- ple, “Anxiety When Dating as a Function of Introversion Level” indicates that the researcher wondered if people are more or less anxious about going on a date, depend- ing on the particular (given) amount of introversion that they exhibit. The reason that published research seems to involve a secret language is because many details are left out. Implicitly it is assumed that the reader of a report (you) has taken a statistics course and so understands the terminology of statistics and research. This means that most of the terms that we’ll discuss are seldom defined in published reports. There- fore, for you to understand research and apply statistical procedures (let alone understand this book), these terms need to become part of your everyday vocabulary. Keep things in perspective by remembering the overall logic of research, which can be summarized by the following five steps: 1. Based on a hypothesized law of nature, we design either an experiment or a corre- lational study to measure variables and to observe the predicted relationship in the sample. We use descriptive statistics to understand the scores and the relationship in the sample. We use inferential procedures to decide whether the sample accurately represents the scores and relationship that we would find if we could study everyone in the population.
It has been shown that probiotics such as Lactobacillus rham- nosus order disulfiram 500mg visa, when given to mothers during pregnancy and/or lactation 250mg disulfiram, and to the infants as soon as they are born, result in fewer allergies (atopy) later on in life. These organisms are the subject of intense re- search and may even be valuable in the critical care setting in hos- pitals by reducing infection and sepsis and length of hospital stay. The smaller the fragments of food absorbed through the gut, the less likely they may trigger a reaction or be recognized by your immune system as a foreign substance. If the gut wall is inflamed enough to cause increased intestinal permeability (bigger sieve- like holes in the gut wall), then bigger than normal molecules could be absorbed, triggering even more and greater food reac- tions anywhere in the body. It means damage to the bowel lining, caused by medications, toxins, poor diet, food intolerance, parasites, fungus, bacterial overgrowth, or infection. Intestinal permeability can lead to toxins, microbes, undigested food, waste, or larger than normal macromolecules be- ing absorbed and causing a reaction locally or elsewhere in the body. If your intestinal permeability is reduced, you will have smaller sieve-like holes in your gut and less uptake of foreign - 124 - “allergic load” and detoxification material through the gut wall that might trigger a reaction some- where else in your body. This is one of the main reasons why, to help many chronically ill patients with multiple complaints, you not only evaluate them for food intolerance but also for “bugs” and abnormal bacteria in the gut. Using probiotics and treating any gut infections can improve intestinal permeability and reduce the al- lergic load and many bodily complaints that are far away from the gut (e. The question is not whether acute expo- sure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, aluminum, nickel, manganese, selenium, etc. The question is whether low-level chronic exposure to these metals can cause chronic health problems. If you do a pre- and post-urine challenge for toxic metals, most of the time, you see no metals in the urine before the chelation challenge. If you do find metal elevation in the pre-challenge urine, it is likely to be an acute exposure. While we virtually never see elevated metals pre- challenge, we frequently see patients who have some type of sig- nificantly elevated metals post-chelation challenge. While logic says to remove them, we don’t yet know all the ramifications of removing these excessive metals. We do know that these metals can cause problems with different meta- bolic pathways and result in some serious complications of human health. The problem lies in knowing what level is toxic and really harmful when these metals are stored in your body. Questions to be answered are: What happens when you take these metals out of the body? When stored in body tissues, nerves, bone, and organs for years, what damage are they really doing? There is no question there is an excess body burden of toxic metals in many people by this type of testing. One of my pet peeves is the way the word “detoxing” is thrown around in alternative medicine. People make it sound as if they actually know what is occurring in the body when they do their particular program; that the way their product improves these in- credible pathways of detoxification in the body (liver, skin, bowels, respiration, etc. The truth is that most people who talk about detoxing have no idea about the complicated bio- chemistry of detoxification. What they do know is that when they put others on a very simple diet with some type of detox product, many symptoms improve. The promoters of the detox products imply their product is doing the detoxing so you have something to buy from them. The truth is that most of the time a very simple and elemental diet is the magic (my opinion). That doesn’t mean fiber-type supplements, probiotics, antioxidants, phytochemicals and nutrients that stimulate liver function don’t benefit detoxifica- - 126 - “allergic load” and detoxification tion, because they can. Still, the biggest part is what people eat (or, truthfully, what they don’t eat) during the detox program. Sweating by any measure, whether in a far infrared sauna, regular saunas (wet or dry), or exercise, is a very important way to eliminate chronic toxins. So hard ex- ercise is not only good for your vascular system, but it also helps detoxify your body at the same time and costs nothing! I recently asked a lecturer at a conference who was speaking on heavy metal detoxification what he thought about far infrared saunas versus other types of saunas. Another very important way to detoxify is to have regular, bulky bowel movements, several times per day. High-fiber, plant-based diets provide the bulk for easy elimination and the antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals to support any detoxifica- tion process. When you go on a detoxification program, you are getting off foods you commonly eat and resting your immune system and bio- chemistry from immune challenge from them. These diets tend to be low in common al- lergens and high in nutrient-rich plant foods (like greens), which help provide antioxidant compounds that aid in detoxification and protection of body tissue.
Photopeak Efﬁciency or Photofraction The fraction of all detected g-rays that contributes only to the photopeak is called the photopeak efﬁciency purchase disulfiram 250mg overnight delivery, or photofraction (fp) discount 500 mg disulfiram with visa. It is given as the total photopeak area divided by the total area under the entire spectrum: All counts under the photopeak fp = (8. Geometric Efﬁciency Radiations from a source are emitted uniformly with equal intensity in all directions. This fraction is determined by the solid angle sub- tended by the detector on the source. The geometric efﬁciency, fg, is equal to the number of radiations striking the detector divided by the total number of radiations emitted by the source. Characteristics of Counting Systems 99 When the source and the detector are in close contact, the fg tends to be about 50% (Fig. In the case of gamma well counters and liquid scin- tillation counters, the fg approaches 100% (Fig. Dead Time Each counting system takes a certain amount of time to process a radiation event, starting from interaction of radiation with the detector all the way up to forming a pulse and ultimately recording it. The counter remains insensitive to a second event for this period of time, that is, if a second radi- ation arrives during this time, the counter cannot process it. When the counter recovers after this period, only then can a second radiation be detected. In scintillation detectors two events may be processed simulta- neously to form a single event of amplitude that is equal to the sum of the amplitudes of both events. Dead time loss at high count rates is a serious problem for any counting system and is more so for scin- tillation cameras due to pulse pileup (see Chapter 11). Illustration of geometric efﬁciency, f , of a detector D with a circular area, pr2, g where r is the radius of the detector. Plot of observed count rates versus true count rates indicating the dead time loss in paralyzable and nonparalyzable systems. Based on how successive pulses are processed owing to the dead time, the counting systems fall into two categories: paralyzable and nonparalyz- able. In paralyzable systems, each event sets its own dead time, even if it arrives within the dead time of the previous event and is not counted. Each event prolongs the dead time induced by the previous event, and thus adds to the total dead time of the system, whereby a paralyzable system can become totally unresponsive to process events if the count rate of the source is very high. On the other hand, in nonparalyzable systems, the instrument remains insensitive to successive events for a period of time equal to the dead time, and these events are lost. When the system recovers after the detection of the ﬁrst event, only then is the second event processed and detected. The paralyzable and nonparalyzable systems can be represented by mathematical relationships among the observed count rate Ro, true count rate Rt, and dead time t. Scalers and pulse-height ana- lyzers are nonparalyzable systems, whereas radiation detectors themselves Gamma Well Counters 101 are paralyzable systems. Scintillation cameras have both paralyzable and nonparalyzable components of dead time. Therefore, either count rates must be lowered or corrections must be made to the observed count rates. An empirical method is to plot the observed count rates as a function of increasing concentrations of known activity. For subsequent measurements of unknown samples, correction is made to compensate for the dead time loss giving true count rates. Another method uses two radioactive sources, which are counted in the counter individually and together. From these three mea- surements, one can calculate dead time using appropriate equations (see Cherry et al. Various techniques, such as use of buffers, in which overlapping events are held off during the dead time, use of pulse pileup rejection circuits, and use of high-speed electronics have been employed to improve the dead time correction. Placing a radioactive sample in the central hole of the detector increases the geometric efﬁciency (almost 99%) and hence the counting efﬁciency of the counter. The NaI(Tl) detectors have dimensions in the range of 5-cm diameter × 5-cm thick to 23-cm diameter × 23-cm thick. Smaller detectors are used for low-energy g -rays (less than 200keV), and larger detectors are used for high-energy g -rays. This calibration is called the high-voltage or energy cali- bration of the well counter. After placing a 137Cs source in the well counter, the lower and upper discriminator levels are set at 640 divisions 102 8. Starting from low values, the high voltage is increased in small increments for a given ampli- ﬁer gain until the observed count rate reaches a maximum. The high voltage at the maximum count rate is kept as the operating voltage for subsequent counting of photons of different energies.
In bisexual 1 An individual who engages in both women proven disulfiram 250mg, the urethra is a short tube that opens just in heterosexual and homosexual sexual relations buy cheap disulfiram 500mg line. In men, it is longer, passing Bisexual can also refer to the corresponding through the prostate gland and then the penis. Bisphosphonates are used to treat a form of urinary incontinence (the unintentional osteoporosis and the bone pain from diseases such loss of urine) and is relatively common, particularly as metastatic breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and in older adults. Bone is in a constant state of cle strengthening, behavioral therapy, and medica- remodeling, whereby new bone is laid down by cells tions. Bisphosphonates inhibit bladder cancer A common form of cancer that bone removal (resorption) by the osteoclasts. The most com- bisphosphonates include Fosamax (alendronate), mon warning sign is blood in the urine. Symptoms Actonel (risedronate), Boniva (ibandronate), and include pain during urination, frequent urination, Reclast (zoledronate). A diagnosis of bladder cancer is supported by findings bite In dental terms, how well the teeth fit in the medical history, physical examination, exam- together (occlude) in the mouth. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires a bladder pain Pain from the urinary bladder. The bladder is Among the symptoms of bladder infection are feel- lined with cells called transitional cells and squa- ings of pain, pressure, and tenderness around the mous cells. A tumor may grow through the lining bladder, pelvis, and perineum (the area between the into the muscular wall of the bladder and extend anus and vagina or anus and scrotum), which may into nearby organs such as the uterus or vagina (in increase as the bladder fills and decrease as it emp- women) or the prostate gland (in men). When blad- ties; decreased bladder capacity; an urgent need to der cancer spreads beyond the bladder, the malig- urinate; painful sexual intercourse; and, in men, nant cells are frequently found in nearby lymph discomfort or pain in the penis and scrotum. Surgical operations are commonly blastoma A tumor thought to arise in embryonic needed. This term is commonly used as part of the name for a tumor, as in glioblastoma and medul- bladder infection Infection of the urinary blad- loblastoma (types of brain tumors), hepatoblas- der. If bladder inflammation Inflammation of the uri- bleeding is caused by injury to a major blood vessel, nary bladder. Spontaneous bleeding infection from bacteria that ascend the urethra to in the skin can represent a serious underlying illness the bladder or for unknown reasons, such as with and requires medical evaluation. See need to urinate, often accompanied by a burning also hemorrhage; menstruation. As bladder inflammation progresses, blood may be observed in the urine and the patient blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelids. In young chil- Blepharitis occurs in two forms, anterior and poste- dren, attempts to avoid the pain of cystitis can be a rior. Anterior blepharitis affects the outside front of cause for daytime wetting (enuresis). The includes avoiding irritants, such as perfumed soaps, two most common causes of anterior blepharitis are near the urethral opening; increased fluid intake; bacteria (Staphylococcus) and scalp dandruff. Untreated Posterior blepharitis affects the inner eyelid (the bladder inflammation can lead to scarring and the moist part that makes contact with the eye) and is formation of stones when urine is retained for long caused by problems with the oil (meibomian) periods of time to avoid painful urination. Two skin disorders can cause this form of blepharitis: rosacea and seb- orrheic dermatitis. Only one eye may be affected initially, but eventually both eyes are usually blocker, beta See beta blocker. The spasms may leave the eyelids com- pletely closed, causing functional blindness even blood The red fluid in the body that contains though the eyes and vision are normal. Blood flows in two blighted ovum A fertilized ovum (egg) that did directions: away from the heart (arterial blood) and not develop or whose development ceased at an toward the heart (venous blood). On the a high concentration of oxygen and nutrients for ultrasound examination of a blighted ovum, only the body tissues, and venous blood is the means by gestational sac that normally surrounds the embryo which carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs for can be seen. The white blood cells (leukocytes) blinded study A clinical trial of drugs in which are a blood-borne part of the immune system. The the test participants do not know whether they are platelets help blood to clot. Together, these three receiving the product being tested or a placebo types of cells make up about half of the volume of (dummy). See the study results are not affected by the power of also erythrocyte; leukocyte; plasma; platelet. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causing stroke blindness Loss of useful sight. Damage to any portion of the blood clot, estrogen-associated A blood clot eye, the optic nerve, or the area of the brain that is associated with estrogen therapy. Also occasional but serious side effects of estrogen ther- known as visually handicapped, visually impaired, apy. Cigarette smokers on estrogen therapy are at a higher risk for blood clots than nonsmokers blindness, legal A degree of blindness that enti- are.